Why Kalabagh Dam is not the answer to our water woes

Published: June 25, 2018

A Pakistani family looks at the Rawal dam spill way during the Eid holidays in Islamabad on August 10, 2013. PHOTO: AFP

A few days back, my views on the futility of Kalabagh Dam published in a national daily evoked a very strong and hostile reaction from many people. I had posed a simple and pertinent question:

“If, as is evident, Pakistan will have very little water in future, what will we fill Kalabagh Dam with?”

Some people said Pakistan will have enough water forever, while others called me an enemy agent. Before delving deeper into why the dam should not be constructed, I would like to share my own experience of water consumption.

Up until 10 years back, I had no idea how much water my family was using, nor was I bothered when I saw it being wasted. This was because the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB) charges domestic consumers a fixed amount every month, irrespective of consumption, based upon the floor area of each house. So a large house owner has to pay much more than a small apartment owner, even if only two people live in the large house and the small house has 10 occupants.

However, when I moved into my present apartment (where a meter records water consumption), I found that on an average, each member of my family was consuming 50 gallons daily (including water used for bathing and washing clothes and dishes). During the hot summer months, my water bill shoots up to Rs15,000 a month. This is because water is either obtained from tankers or from a reverse-osmosis plant set up near my apartment block to supply water to 720 apartments.

So, when I read about Pakistan running out of water in the next few years due to receding glaciers and highly reduced rain due to global warming, as well as the diversion of our water by India, I thought it would be good if our people could be compelled to save water. One way of doing that would of course be to make people pay for actual consumption, rather than recover a fixed amount based on the space occupied by their houses. Of course, most of the water of our rivers is consumed for agriculture, so it is essential to train farmers to reduce wastage of water.

A lot of people argue that Kalabagh Dam is the answer to all our water-related problems. My arguments against building it stem from many statistics and examples available to me. It has been known for a long time that huge dams cause great environmental damage, besides being very expensive and construction requiring a very long time. For example, even though the foundation stone of the $11 billion Diamer Bhasha Dam was laid in 2011, but construction has not yet started.

Besides contributing to global warming, dams have resulted in the decimation of fish species, displacement of people, desertification of areas near the coast, and changing the ecology of the planet by trapping sediment which is needed by deltas to support vegetation. The intrusion of the sea and destruction of agricultural land in lower Sindh is a direct result of dams and hydropower projects upstream.

According to International Rivers:

“The livelihoods of many millions of people also suffer because of the downstream effects of dams: the loss of fisheries, contaminated water, decreased amounts of water and a reduction in the fertility of farmlands and forests due to the loss of natural fertilisers and irrigation in seasonal floods. Dams also spread waterborne diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. Opponents also believe that the benefits of dams have frequently been deliberately exaggerated and that the services they provide could be provided by other more efficient and sustainable means.”

It should be obvious that another huge dam upstream would deal a death blow to Sindh.

One argument in favour of large dams is that hydropower is much cheaper than other conventional options available. But I’d like to argue that the cost of electricity from solar cells has reduced considerably in recent years and is expected to be lower in future and this could be used instead. Moreover, even though hydropower is very cheap, the opportunity cost of it is a lot higher.

“Hydropower should not be considered as clean power because of the destruction of river ecosystems and its many social impacts. Internationally, private investors in power projects are largely avoiding large dams and prefer to invest in cheaper and less risky gas-fired power plants.”

In fact, about 1,000 dams are being dismantled in the US to restore rivers to their original pristine condition.

Gradually, electricity from solar panels is becoming popular. In future, most houses, farms and factories will be able to produce virtually free electricity.

Instead of building the dam (which would alienate the people of three provinces and leave our children and grandchildren to pay the loan of billions plus interest), we should look at the wastage of water by our farmers. Worldwide, rice requires 2,500 litres of water to produce one kilogram, but in Pakistan, we use twice that amount of water. As for sugar, our farmers use 7,000 litres of water to produce one kilogram of sugar, whereas in other countries only 1,500 litres of water is used to grow the same amount of sugar!

Not only is this a criminal wastage of water, sugar is one commodity which we should learn to use economically. It’s bad for health, it requires an immense amount of storage, and it is highly subsidised. It therefore has a negative impact on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP); it actually makes the country poorer.

Instead of providing so much subsidy and other benefits for sugar production, the government should provide the same facilities for growth of valuable crops like canola, sunflower and other edible crops. Unfortunately, this seems to be a lost cause as a lot of politics is involved here. Most of our filthy rich politicians are sugar mill owners, who get bank loans written off and pay very little tax. They are, of course, able to do this because they are in the Parliament and they decide how much tax we should pay (while paying negligible amount of taxes themselves).

Moreover, our farmers should take up drip irrigation, which can raise production significantly using the same quantity of water. Israel is the pioneer in this field, and in India,it has been adopted successfully in many states, resulting in saving water for more irrigation.

Singapore, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries rely completely on sea water desalination plants for providing water for drinking and agriculture. Why not try this in Pakistan? Initially, sufficient water for Karachi and coastal areas can be produced by setting up large desalination plants. Later, such plants can be built to provide water for agriculture. The face of Sindh and Balochistan will be changed forever, providing livelihood and food for the poor and impoverished people.

Hence, those who are insisting on making Kalabagh Dam should consider that besides measures to reduce water wastage, there are cheaper alternatives available worldwide to produce electricity and water. The Kalabagh Dam will only leave a huge debt for future generations, besides doing irreversible damage to the environment.

Shakir Lakhani

Shakir Lakhani

Engineer, former visiting lecturer at NED Engineering College, industrialist, associated with petroleum/chemical industries for many years. Loves writing, and (in the opinion of most of those who know him), mentally unbalanced. He tweets @shakirlakhani (twitter.com/shakirlakhani)

The views expressed by the writer and the reader comments do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of The Express Tribune.

  • Faraz Qayyum

    Baffled by the irrational arguments on such a sensitive issue… Hats off man… Hats off to you… Stop misguiding people for GOD’s sake…Recommend

  • Yogi Berra

    Kalabagh dam will trigger civil war in Pakistan between Sindh and Punjab. India will restrict water flowing into Pakistan so building dam is waste of money anyway. Because there won’t be any water flowing in.Recommend

  • Sam I Am

    You used two names (Israel and India) in favor of drip irrigation that will ensure that we never use this system.Recommend

  • Faisal Mehmood

    Due to global warming, glaciers will melt and rains will increase, means we will have more torrential rainfalls to cause big floods but no glaciers for continuous supply of wafer. That’s why we need dams to collect that torrential rainfalls water when glaciers cannot supply throughout year.Recommend

  • Faisal Mehmood

    Which country is using treated sea water for agriculture. I think you don’t know the cost of treating brackich water to make it fit for human consumption or agriculture.Recommend

  • Saleem Azam

    Well done sir your point of view on the rational basis.The dams have positive and negative impacts but our country need dam for the energy,agriculture as well as for the domestic use.But the government could plan to get water through the other ways if they have the will.Recommend

  • Muzzammil Hussain

    If you think that another huge dam upstream would deal a death blow to Sindh then why you are silent on India’s dams?

    In-fact upstream dams will provide water to Sindh for whole year and also save South Punjab & Sindh from Natural Floods as well as Artificial Floods triggered by Idiot India.Recommend

  • Ali Arya

    What a silly article. Solar isn’t reliable, even in a country like Pakistan, case in point the Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park, secondly our agricultural sector employs & contributes at least 1000x more to the GDP then our inland fisheries. Dams are being destroyed in the US because they have outlived their useful life as they are silted up, plus they have excess coal and are now the 6th largest exporter of oil. As for water consumption in the agricultural sector neither the PPP nor the PMLN have talked about investing in water conservation technology or training, the only person I have heard addressing this topic is Jahangir Tareen of the PTI.Recommend

  • Usman Ghani

    Dear Shakir,
    your blog is very interesting,informative and close to the facts but the point is not about the current water consumption. We have to think about of our next generation, who will suffer due to our nonsense thinking and policies.Kalabagh Dam have to have big storage capacity to overcome our near future water shortage problems. We need more dams not only for power and also for water storage.Recommend

  • Jawad Khan

    There is something called strategically vital. KB will ensure water availability hence supporting/enhancing agriculture and generate power hence bringing down oil import bill.Recommend

  • HeyAow

    This was a really informative read. I don’t know much about the politics involved, nor do i want to get into it, but the most relevant detail on the issue of water for everyone reading this is that saving water is the religious and national obligation of all of us. While we wait for our rulers to regulate water consumption, build water recycling plants and the likes that the author suggests (all great suggestions btw), perhaps what’s more important for all of us is to revisit our daily usage of water and try to change our habits. Instead of spending too much time in the shower, learn to take a quick 5-10 minutes shower. You can save water even during these 5-10 minutes as you do not require water throughout, such as while applying soap/shampoo to your body/hair. Learn to turn the tap off in these intervals. Also please check the water use of your household workers, such as cleaners. Encourage the use of a small to medium sized bucket to wash your cars, garages, bathrooms instead of the water pipe with its unlimited water supply. My family has started to implement some of these practices in our household, and while there’s a lot that still needs to be done, these little changes alone have made a lot of difference in our water consumption. If anyone has suggestions on how to recycle water for home use, please share.Recommend

  • Shahid Ali Sayed

    This article seems to be politically motivated to please a large segment of ignorant and self centered politicians of Pakistan who have not done anything good for the masses of Pakistan in stead used all means of corruptions to steal wealth of Pakistan.

    Kalabagh dam will not only help to create thousand of jobs, cheap electricity as well as provide water for agriculture. India and China have built thousand of Dams to meet their water and electricity needs.
    The money we will spend of construction of Kalabagh dam will be recoverable within 5-7 years. I have no doubt that it will create huge economy for Pakistan.Recommend

  • Abdul

    Dear Mr. Shakir,
    Let me use my freedom of expression as well. You can say what you said, because you are getting uninterrupted water through RO plant. How many RO plants are there in Karachi. Already Karachi is controlled by the Tanker Mafia and it seems that karachites have not learned anything from it yet.
    Due to the geography of Punjab, even if we dun build KBD, punjab would suffer the least it is Sindh who will be hit the most as Punjab get alot of water already due to presence of many rivers here.
    Your question of ‘What will fill the KBD’? It seems as if you have no knowledge of how a dam is filled or how the water channel works.
    About your claim of sindh’s water would be held up by Punjab. Punjab actually agreed to the proposal given by Chief of Wapda to give the admin. control of KBD to Sindh.
    Moreover you comparing inefficient and expensive Solar power to hydro power is beyond any rational.


    kindly correct yourself, India has no upstream storage dam on river meant for Pakistan neither it’s allowed to built under Indus water treaty. Hence, there is no question of holding Water meant for Pakistan or creating artificial flood.Recommend

  • Parvez

    Pakistan’s problem is not availability of water…..it’s problem is proper management of its water resources.
    The function of a dam is to store water for later use and produce cheap electricity.
    Kalabag dam is a toxic topic, made so by our politicians …. because of their lack of trust between themselves.
    Instead of wasting time on Kalabag we need to build many smaller dams on run-of-the-river principle …… that could be financed even locally. Why our governments have not persued this, is not hard to guess.Recommend

  • Sami Thinker

    Well written Sir, but i think Dam is need of the hour. As far as impediment of warer for Sindh is concerned there must be adequate river flow to tackle the need of Sindh. Now see, if Channab and Jhelum were been flowing would you have same opinion at the moment ? No, so we have to delve out this problem together and will have to sacrifice in a systematic way in order to get rid of the issues.Recommend

  • ummara Tariq

    since long im of the view to establish a water desalination plant . learn from gulf countries . still i would say dam is important too . its going to be a reservoir for the rain water .Recommend

  • Patwari

    An 8 minute shower uses 18 gallons of water. Cut it down to 5 minutes imagine how much is saved. Flushing toilets uses the most water in a household. Then come dish and clothes washing, [washer and dryer etc. if you have them] Large tanker was Rs 2000 in 2017. Now…
    Agree with the author to a great extent. It starts with conservation. But nobody heard or even knows what conservation is in Pakistan. It can start with a massive awareness campaign. Hope the govt. does something. Maybe, hopefully, the CJP…will step in? Awareness is a dire need.
    Very true dams have a debilitating effect on the environment. Mangroves forests near Karachi and further south have been decimated. From what the locals say in Keti Bundar, Badin and
    Thatta they use to be all the way up to Bhambore! In the Indus delta channels. Not anymore.
    They also act as hatcheries for young fish. And bird sanctuaries. All nearly gone.
    Solar power and windpower is the need of the day. Solar power is becoming quite affordable in Pakistan. Will save you tons of money including generator fuel bills.
    Saw 4 solar panels on a lamp post in a village in Sindh near Mohenjo Daro. These 4 panels provided decent electricity to 6 houses!! Bare minimum, light bulbs, but did the job!
    These villages, in Sindh, get only 2 hours of electricity a day!!
    Pakistan has massive problems. They are all solvable. But world class corruption and near illiterate, ignorant, politicians, feudals, waderas have a choke hold. Holding the country hostage
    Indeed, take Aswan High Dam in Egypt, which also created the massive huge big Lake Nasser. Miles and miles long and very deep. The third largest such body of water in the world. During drought years this lake can supply water to all of Egypt. For quite some time.
    So dams in some countries are debatable. Maybe they simply cannot do without them.Recommend

  • Shakir Lakhani

    Potatoes are being grown in Israel using salt water.Recommend

  • Shakir Lakhani

    It has already happened. Most of our dams are empty today.Recommend

  • Shakir Lakhani

    Why not use dredging to remove some of the silt that has accumulated in our dams? At least the storage capacity will be increased.Recommend

  • Shakir Lakhani

    Of all people, Jahangir Tareen of the PTI! He is one of the big owners of sugar mills.Recommend

  • Shakir Lakhani

    Pakistan has objected to construction of dams by India on the Indus, but unfortunately we don’t have much support in World Bank, which has suggested that the problem be resolved through direct talks between Indian and Pakistan.Recommend

  • Shakir Lakhani

    Already the Indus below Kotri is virtually dry for most of the year. KBD will gobble up whatever water Sindh is getting today.Recommend

  • Shahid Ali Sayed

    I have been living in Gulf countries for 40 years and its true that their sole source of water is Desalination plants. They have huge supply of cheap oil to afford high operational cost of Desalination plants which Pakistan can never afford. The solution of water shortage of Pakistan is as follows:

    1- Build new water reservoirs like Kalabagh dam
    2- Privatize water supply plants
    3- Pass the actual operational cost of water plants to consumers and eliminate all subsidiaries.
    4- Installation of RO plants which is comparatively cheaper solutionRecommend

  • Muzzammil Hussain

    Good Joke. Lol!!!

    In-fact storage dams which India is building in Kashmir are upstream dams on Pakistan’s rivers to steal our water by diverting rivers flow to Indian Punjab and Rajasthan at peak season when we need water for our crops.

    On the other hand, when there will be a natural flood like situation in Pakistan due to excessive rains, India will release water from those storage dams to intensify floods means create artificial floods.

    In short, India will use water as a weapon against Pakistan to hit our economy.

    Your PM Narendra Modi said this many times that we will teach a lesson to Pakistan by using water as a weapon.Recommend

  • ghayyas

    Why is the author misleading the public? Is he a politician?
    1. China has built 20000+ dams, USA 9000 +, India 5000+, Iran 500+, Pakistan only 164.
    2. India’s total dam storage is 224 km3, ours is only 23 km3. India’s storage is sufficient for 120 days, ours only for 30 days.
    3. About 30-40 MAF of water goes to the sea while about 10 MAF is enough to check against sea intrusion and maintain the ecosystem of Indus delta. We have surplus water to store. Any new dam will not turn Sindh into a desert. Please read World Bank and other GoP reports.
    4. India is building dams on rivers Chenab and Jhelum in Occupied Kashmir. It will affect inflows into Pakistan. Read about Kishenganga project, Baglihar project, etc. Afghanistan is planning to build dams on Kunar/Chitral river, a major tributary of our river Kabul. It will result in reduction of inflows into Pakistan.Recommend

  • James Caan

    Are China & India crazy that they have build thousands of dams? Why don’t Indian politicians say the country will break because of constructing of new dams?Recommend

  • Shakir Lakhani

    “Pakistan only 164.”. All empty! ” It will result in reduction of inflows into Pakistan”. So, where will you get water to fill KBD? Why waste money on dams when there is no water?Recommend

  • http://ecarobar.com Shahzeb Farooq Chohan

    Why can’t we try to secure whatever we (would) receive?
    Do you mean we should not Even try to build our resources for water storage just because we will have low infolws?Recommend

  • http://ecarobar.com Shahzeb Farooq Chohan

    Instead of writing this in here hidden comment plz dare to add this role of india in your article….Recommend

  • http://ecarobar.com Shahzeb Farooq Chohan

    “The intrusion of the sea and destruction of agricultural land in lower Sindh is a direct result of dams and hydropower projects upstream.”
    Can anyone plz explain how and which dam caused this ?Recommend

  • gp65

    Run of the river projects – by design do not store water. While they can be used to generate electricity, they do not serve the purpose of improving water management.
    When he was the CM of Gujarat, Modi made tens of thousands of small check dams making Gujarat one of only 2 states where water levels increased over 2 years.
    The point made by the author about saving water is also important (and relevant to both India and Pakistan). It is not just about saving water in domestic households but also in irrigation. Flood irrigation is extremely wasteful and should be replaced by drip irrigation.
    Deforestation is another root cause that Pakistan needs to address. It has less than 2% forest cover compared to 23% for India. At time of independence, forest cover for both countries was comparable.Recommend

  • gp65

    They are upstream – yes but they are run of the river dams. Please provide a single quote where Modi has said he will use water as a weapon. What he has said is that he will ensure that every drop of water that India is entitled to, he will use for India.Recommend

  • gp65

    Factually incorrect. Pakistan already lost the arbitration case on Kishenganga project which was fought over 7 years. The judgment was India could build a run of the river dam but had to modify its design. India modified its design. Pakistan then objected that the modified design was not compliant with court order so India said, in that case it is a neutral expert which should decide.
    It is in this situation that World Bank refused to intervene. After all, World Bank is not a court. Whichever case Pakistan took to the arvitration court be it on Kishanganga, Ratle or Baglihar – it lost.Recommend

  • allaisaxuver

    There you go. India is the big bully and ‘stealing’, ‘diverting’ Pakistan’s water. That is the problem. But what are you going to do about it?Recommend

  • allaisaxuver

    To build RO plants don’t you need electricity? Where will you get it from? Harvest Jinns?Recommend

  • allaisaxuver

    But, but, but your water, as ghayyas said, is being stolen by big bad India. You got to name it and shame it and presto all your water worries will be gone and you will have plenty of water to fill KBD and some more.Recommend

  • allaisaxuver

    The joke is on you, bro. You have three western rivers and India has three eastern rivers. India can do whatever on its three eastern rivers and can make non consumptive use on western rivers i.e for power generation. India gets 15% of the water and you get 85% of the water and then you dump most of the water in the sea as you have no storage facilites and built the last dam some 40 years ago. So do not blame India for your misdeeds and non deeds. BTW India has won ALL cases you brought against it as you have no experts who can argue these cases and you engage as you say phoren experts who have no dog in the fight. India uses its own experts and wins the cases. First improve your education facilities. BTW India has not come no where near using ALL the water it is entitled to. Once it does you will have more worries, which I expect to happen by 2025.Recommend

  • allaisaxuver

    No World Bank does not ‘support’ either India or Pakistan. Its sole duty is to appoint neutral expert and THEN if the matter is not resolved refer the matter to Court of Arbitration. But Pakistan wanted to put the cart before the horse by asking for a CoA first to which India rightfully objected and thus Pakistan lost the opportunity to contest the case. I can understand why. Neutral experts decide on technical merits and Pakistan has no technical experts who can argue the cases and so averse to take the case before NE. It always uses foreign ‘experts’ and they charge a lot and lose cases.Recommend

  • Shakir Lakhani

    It may appear to you that the World Bank is biased in favor of India, but it’s our fault that we agreed to the Indus Waters Treaty which gave 3 rivers to India. So of course India is bound to take advantage. However, there is a water famine in India as well, and once the glaciers are gone, India too will be in the same situation as Pakistan is today, having no water to fill its dams.Recommend

  • Patwari

    Er, see, well, in your Hindutva zeal you just went overboard.
    Fact :- Everything that Hindustan does is anti Pakistan. It wants
    to isolate Pakistan, it’s aiding and abetting terrorists and terrorism
    in Pakland. It sends spies over. It is using Afghanis to foment trouble
    in a restive province. It has a Cold Start doctrine. It’s army chief is
    perpetually hurling threats, Muslims are killed right and left.
    So why should not Pakistanis believe that Bharat is stealing Pak’s water?
    After all, Modi Sarkar is class A-1 Muslim hater. And he is at the helm of
    the Hindutva Mothership, called Hinduland…er…Hindu Rashtra.
    You don’t see it at all, do you?Recommend

  • Parvez

    Thank you …..Recommend

  • Patwari

    Hopefully the Big Bad Bullying Bharat [4 B’s] will grow legs and walk over
    to Antartica, and settle down there, with the penguins.
    Plenty of water, no shortage. Be happy there, with dancing feet.
    Never mind that there will be peace in the sub continent with the Hindu
    Rashtra gone.Recommend

  • Patwari

    Any left over water will be put in mutkas and bartan,and ya’ll
    can form a passing brigade and carry it to Dilli, Bareilly, Nagpur
    Hawra, and Agra. Cheaper. No pipeline needed.
    You know, passing pots from hand to hand,…there are 2 billions
    of you. Should not be a issue.Recommend

  • Patwari

    Gujrat must be heaven on earth, or as they say in Hindustan, dharmee par svarg With all these ‘tens of thousands’ of small check dams. All at the behest of this ‘mail order’ degree holder. An emerald isle in the midst of the Hindustani desert.
    Except for the 2000 plus Muslim graves that come underfoot.
    Even Hitler did some great civil and social engineering. Dams, factories, built up the Ruhr industrial hub. Armament factories. Whatnot…
    Gave jobs to thousands, building concentration camps. All over Deutschland.
    Wish the Gujratis had kept the Saffron Lord in their praant. Instead of unleashing this drohee on the world.Recommend

  • ghayyas

    We get surplus water during the monsoon season. It is about 30-40 MAF per annum. Leaving aside 10 MAF for the Indus delta below Kotri barrage, the remaining could be and should be stored for irrigation and power production. Conserving water is very important as our irrigation systems efficiency is about 40%, roughly same as India’s. In developed countries it is around 70%. But Conservation measures are long-term measures (20-30 years time-frame). We have to create conservation awareness amongst the masses, change outdated irrigation methods by educating the farmers, develop and plant those agriculture crops that require less water, invest hugely in the outdated irrigation infrastructure, plant trees on our watersheds, set up wastewater treatment and recycling plants, etc. Do we have the time to wait for seeing the results of these long-term measures? On immediate basis and to address the critical situation, we have to build large dams.Recommend

  • ghayyas

    Yes, India is not complying with the Indus Basin Treaty. Please study Pakistan’s objections over Baglihar dam, Kishenganga project etc. Do not forget that India stopped flow into rivers Ravi and Sutlej in 1948. It can happen again. And in 1960 we lost 3 rivers. Not even one cusec of water is released in these dead rivers by the big bad boy India. Can you cite any other such case of death of a river from the whole world?Recommend

  • allaisaxuver

    Actually you are not far off. India has THREE bases in Antarctic and Pakistan has none, zero, zip, nada. May be India one day will move but I won’t wait for that day if I were you!Recommend

  • allaisaxuver

    Glass half full, half glass empty syndrome. You GAINED three rivers. Without the treaty you would have had none. Have you thought about that? Reading Pakistani briefs does not enlighten me but the decisions so far by neutral experts as well as Court of Arbitration went largely in favor of India because Pakistani arguments were found to have no merit. In any case Pakistan is allocated 85% (yes EIGHTY FIVE PERCENT) of the water while India makes do with 15% of water even though India is an upper riparian state. If that is not generous I do no know what is.
    I hope these comments see the light of day. Thanks.Recommend

  • allaisaxuver

    I am neither an Indian nor a Hindu. So Hindutwa zeal has no meaning to me.Recommend

  • Shakir Lakhani

    Pakistan already has more water than it needs


  • ghayyas

    As you said ‘Without the treaty you would have had none’. Such comments confirm that India intended (and intends) to grab all the six rivers. The reason that India couldn’t stop the flow in all the six rivers in 1948 was because of the geography of the 3 western rivers. Why my Pakistani fellow citizens and particularly the author of this article fail to understand the hidden designs of India? With present day technologies of lift irrigation and digging out tunnels through mountains, water can be easily diverted to other plain areas far away.Recommend

  • Shakir Lakhani

    The two dams, Manila & Tarbela.Recommend

  • aaaaaaaaa

    aoa ,sir as you mentioned that we should produce sunflower etc. but i think it cant be grow all over Pakistan.The reason behind this ,in some areas of Pakistan there is excessive quantity of water in land and that land cant produce sunflower etc as above mentioned crop require little amount of water and we have some areas where water level is low and there we already producing .It depends upon the ground ,we cant make 100% own choiceRecommend

  • Harris Ahmed

    biased, all dams including kalabagh are neededRecommend