Hindi cannot be the national language because India’s unity is shaped by its coloniser’s English language

Published: January 31, 2018

A chalkboard with the question "do you speak Hindi?" PHOTO: SHUTTERSTOCK

Earlier this month, a very significant debate took place in the Lok Sabha of India between External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj and the MP from Thiruvananthapuram, Shashi Tharoor. The debate was regarding making Hindi an official language at the United Nations (UN).

Swaraj, in reply to a question on what steps the government is taking in making Hindi an official language at the UN, said the government is doing its best in creating a consensus among other countries to accept it. She said that the government of India is willing to spend not just 40 but even 400 crores in making Hindi an official language. In short, money is no bar. Tharoor referred to this as a waste of tax payer’s money and an entirely unnecessary endeavour.

Swaraj and Tharoor have a very different view of the importance of Hindi to India, which is just the latest manifestation of one of the fundamental problems that besets the polity of the Indian nation state today. While Swaraj views Hindi as the glue that will strengthen the unity of the Indian union, Tharoor views this to be an attempt at forging a unity to be misguided, if not simply counterproductive. Even 70 years after independence, India is yet to adequately address this question of language in a satisfactory manner. But in which direction do the answers lie? With Swaraj or Tharoor?

To attempt answering this question, it is important to engage with the history of the formation of the modern political Indian union, since there is a distinct history behind the formation of every nation state. Elsewhere, Tharoor has said that India is a distinct and recognisable civilisational space.

While this may be true, and while this may have facilitated the coming together of the people of India, the circumstance that precipitated this political coming together was colonialism. Our nationalism is therefore an inclusive heterogeneous nationalism. However, many of our founding fathers like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel and so on, were influenced by modular forms of western nationalism based on a single religion and language. They thus decided to give Hindi the status of being the first among equals of Indian languages in the interest of India’s unity, given the number of people who could converse in it. English was to be phased out in some time because it was the language of the coloniser while Hindi, a native language, was to take its place as the lingua franca of the Indian union.

But this was not to be. Several episodes in independent India’s history prevented this from happening. Firstly, Nehru was forced to create linguistic states when a Gandhian, Potti Sriramulu, fasted to death while demanding the creation of a state for Telugu speakers. Had linguistic states not been created, Hindi stood a better chance of being the lingua franca. The second, more compelling episode was the anti-Hindi protests in Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. If Hindi was to be the lingua franca of India, it was imperative that non-Hindi people learn the language. This amounted to an imposition and an undermining of non-Hindi language systems. This was resisted and Nehru had to concede that Hindi would not be mandatory and that English would continue to be the language of the union government along with Hindi.

Thus, while Hindi was not able to replace English in modern India, it remains, to this day, the most powerful Indian language in the Indian union. This has had many consequences.

The first is that while most parts of India underwent linguistic divisions, North India did not. While North Indian states speak a whole host of other languages apart from Hindi, barring Punjab, their governments function in Hindi. People in Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh (MP) and so on, speak several languages but they all function in Hindi. When a state in a certain area does not function in the language that the people in that area speak, it exacts a huge human cost. States become inherently more inefficient in delivering goods and services. Children who do not learn in their mother tongues have poorer educational outcomes. One of the things common to the BIMARU states (an acronym for India’s laggard states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh) of India is that they function in Hindi while their people speak several other languages too. This could well be one of the important factors that explain why South Indian states perform better. Is it thus time to ask what cost has Hindi exacted in the states of the North where it wasn’t the lingua franca? It also poses a direct threat to other language systems since the incentive to learn Hindi is strong whereas there is no incentive to learn their mother tongues.

In the ladder of upward mobility in North India, English is at the top, followed by Hindi, followed by the local languages. This system leads to the local languages dying out because if you wish to be upwardly mobile, the incentive to learn the local language is low since the state and the market don’t function in it. Hindi is more concentrated in the urban areas of North India therefore this also exacerbates the rural-urban divide with those unable to speak Hindi frequently looked down upon just as the Anglophone elite often look down upon those who don’t know English. This pernicious system sustains different levels of encrusted elite in India. Whereas in North India this is a three-language system, in other parts of India this tends to be a two-language system, with English on top followed by the local language. This has meant that local languages in other parts are not as threatened yet. It is thus the elite of the Hindi states who continue to push for Hindi to be more widely accepted in India.

The second problem that arose with Hindi remaining the first among equals of Indian languages is that it opened more doors for Hindi speakers since the union government functions in Hindi and English. Hindi speakers had greater access to a variety of government jobs and advantages in exams conducted by the government. In a polity, if more doors are opened to speakers of certain languages, then they are, by default, more advantaged, relegating other language speakers to a diminished sense of ownership in the Indian political dispensation. No polity should allow this to perpetuate. The place of Hindi in the Indian union has thus created a structural imbalance in India’s architecture.

This brings us back to English. The advantage that English enjoys over Hindi is that it is equally alien to all Indians and is therefore not accompanied with a sense of one-upmanship among a certain geographically concentrated people and a diminished sense of ownership in the political dispensation among others. It also comes with the immense benefit of connecting Indians to the global community. Proponents of Hindi say that India should not use English because it is the language of the coloniser and that using English is a sign of continued servility. Apart from this being a sign of insecurity, proponents must look at the conditions that lead to India’s unity. As mentioned earlier, India came together politically as a response to colonialism and, as the sociologist Ashis Nandy says, like all such responses, India’s nationalism is also shaped by what it responded to. In short, while being a recognisable, civilisational space facilitated unity, India’s unity is shaped by the English language.

Keeping this in mind, in retrospect, it is easy to see why Hindi could not become the national language of India and why English persists. Proponents of Hindi like Swaraj will do well to internalise this. India’s unity cannot be facilitated by Hindi especially since the well-to-do South Indian states pay more in taxes per-capita. The population of Hindi-speaking states is also growing at a faster pace further fuelling insecurities among the non-Hindi states. Giving importance to Hindi over other languages is detrimental for Indian unity. It undermines Indian nationalism because as mentioned earlier, India’s nationalism is assimilative. Pushing for a homogenous, Hindi-based nationalism, either internally or externally, at forums such as the UN, weakens this assimilative nationalism that will only thrive with its various constituents being treated and strengthened equally.

The road for India ought to be clear enough. India needs to invest in technology that makes real-time translation possible, the Indian union government needs to function in all Eighth Schedule languages by hiring translators and people from all across the country and Indian people need to learn each other’s languages. In short, India needs to function like the European Union (EU). That would be a more meaningful unity reflecting this assimilative nationalism.

As for the UN, Swaraj really ought not to worry. The UN already uses English and it is time Indians start viewing English as the Indian language that it now is!

Ayush Khanna

Ayush Khanna

The author is an Environmental Engineer from Bengaluru, India. He writes on history, economics and socio-political issues. He tweets @AyushyaKhanna (twitter.com/AyushyaKhanna)

The views expressed by the writer and the reader comments do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of The Express Tribune.

  • Gratgy

    You can travel to almost everywhere in India and manage with Hindi, but you cannot do that with EnglishRecommend

  • Manju

    That’s not the case in South India. More than half of the family members at my home don’t even understand Hindi. But are proficient in English.Recommend

  • Manju

    Making a language to bind the country is a good attempt but if people are not willing to accept then it’s better not to impose. Difference in Language resembles cultural diversity of India, you cannot make everyone in the country eat Roti and Dal for daily food. Biggest example is 1969 when Pakistan made Urdu official not taking east Pakistan into confidence.Recommend

  • vinsin

    I agree. I think the biggest mistake India made after Independence was not taking revival of sanskrit on a war footing level. Probably India needed three language tier : English, Sanskrit and Regional Language. Now it is too late and India should try to focus on promotion of English and Regional Language.Recommend

  • wb

    And why do you think that is? Use your head. It’s not because people almost everywhere in India know Hindi or love to know Hindi. It’s because, successive governments have imposed Hindi upon us, like Hitler trying to impose Germany on others.

    understand that for us South Indians, Hindi is literally an inferior language which I can prove to you logically.

    Unlike our languages, Hindi does not have its own script. Unlike our languages, Hindi draws heavily from Persian and Arabic, which were both the languages of the oppressors. Recommend

  • Niyaz14

    Hindi should be the national language. period. Standard Hindi is easily learnt by those speaking Hindi dialects than alien English. Recommend

  • Pradeep Bhanot

    Communists of India first tried to kill Sanskrit, because of following the simple phrase,
    “If u want to eliminate one family, 1st kill its mother”
    Than came the turn of Hindi. The Congress and communists kept the pot boiling by inciting hatred in India on the lines of language and caste.
    India is united by its cultural diversity and inclusiveness, not by English.Recommend

  • Pradeep Bhanot

    Yes very much true,Not even 10% of indians understand English.Recommend

  • Vineeth

    Pakistan paid a heavy price in 1971 for the unilateral imposition of Urdu. It is imperative that the Hindi lobby learns from this, and do not repeat the same mistake. But it is also true that due to lack of pervasive English education among the masses there is no other Indian bridge language that can be used by a person travelling to a different region. English at best works with upper crust of the society, not the average trader on the street.Recommend

  • Vineeth

    Sanskrit is indeed a more region-neutral language, and one that has had a monumental influence in shaping culture of the subcontinent (and even the cultures of south east Asia) prior to the arrival of Islam. Additionally, it has had a major influence in shaping the vocabulary of South Indian languages too (Tamil to a lesser degree among the lot, perhaps). Being a native Malayalam speaker I have found the Sanskrit-heavy Hindi dialogues of Mahabharat serial far easier to understand than the Hindustani of Bollywood, as much of those words are used verbatim in Malayalam. But sadly Sanskrit remains by and large like Latin – a non-vernacular language that is not spoken by the masses.Recommend

  • http://thoughtsandotherthing.blogspot.fr/2015/09/hyderabad-as-i-know-and-feel.html Supriya Arcot

    Hindu .. Hindi .. join the dots … English can be our second national language .Recommend

  • Gratgy

    I never mentioned the reason, I am just stating a fact. I belong to the same state that you belong to however I don’t reside there. When I visit Bangalore, and I need to speak to some random stranger on the road, it is sometimes easier to speak in Hindi not because I prefer Hindi but because the other person might not be a Kannadiga and might not understand my language. I can speak six languages fluently including three south Indian, so which language should I speak with him

    No language is superior or inferior, they are just means of communication. Every language is influenced by other languages. Modern English is influenced by so many languages such as Latin, French and even Hindi. Hindi uses devanagari script which has nothing to do with Arabic or Persian

    It is a misconception and victim complex in South india where they believe “North Indians” imposed Hindi because it is “their” language. Except a few areas of UP and Madhya Pradesh, each North Indian state has its own language just like yours. Kashmiris speak Kashmiri at home, Punjabis speak Punjabi , Bihar has languages like Mythili, Bhojpuri, Mungeri, santhali which sound totally different from Hindi. Haryana has Haryanvi, Rajasthan has Marwadi and Rajasthani, Gujarat has Gujarati, Bengal has Bengali. Some of these languages have their own script as well.

    But only in South India this misconception has been spread that it is some kind of linguistic oppression by the North on the South. People in the South think that all North Indians are “Hindi people” just like North Indians thinks all south Indians speak “Madrasi”Recommend

  • Gratgy

    I agree with you on this, but now its too late to switch to sanskrit. English is a language of the Elite in India and that would create a bigger divide between the rich and poorRecommend

  • Gratgy

    Urdu was a region neutral language, just like English is. In fact Urdu originated in Central India rather than Pakistan where the major Languages were Punjabi, Sindhi, and PushtoRecommend

  • Vineeth

    And what about the speakers of Dravidian languages in South India which has no relationship whatsoever with Hindi as spoken in the North? English is an equal handicap for everyone, and a global language with many advantages. Hindi favors northerners alone.Recommend

  • Vineeth

    Make Hindi as the national language for those speaking Hindi dialects in the North then. Do not impose it on the South where we have more ancient and culturally rich languages that developed independently from Hindi. Hindi is an inferior language in every way.Recommend

  • Salim Alvi

    90% Marathi words r Hindi words. 60% of Malyalaum and Telgu words are Hindi as well. Substratum of all Indian languages including Tamil is Sanskrit. Sanskrit can be a good programming and Knowledge Base (Expert System & Artificial Intelligence) language. India needs to quickly move to Sanskrit even for Medical, Science & Tech educationRecommend

  • addo

    Devnagari script is singularly useless. Devnagari should not be taught in schools it is a waste of time. Hindi and all other regional languages will be dead in India in 30 years…English is the future.Recommend

  • wb

    Agreed. Sanskrit. Not Hindi. By the way 90% Marathi is not Hindi, but a majority of it is Sanskrit. Same goes to other languages.

    But, that will not be acceptable to most people, as Sanskirt is considered the language of Brahmins or Upper Castes.

    Hence, English is the best alternative we have.Recommend

  • Ayush

    This is incorrect. Many of these languages have Sanskrit loan words. They cannot be ‘Hindi’ words because Hindi is a much younger language than all of them. Hindi also liberally borrows from Sanskrit which is why there are common words. But to say that these languages have many ‘Hindi’ words or that languages spoken in North India are ‘dialects’ of Hindi is completely inaccurate, linguistically speakingRecommend

  • Ayush

    No it would not. English should remain the language in which the elite in India communicate with each other ( as opposed to Hindi) and state governments must endeavor to work in the language that people in that area speak.
    GOI must function in all 8th schedule languages and not only in Hindi and English.
    This article is not arguing for making English the ‘lingua franca’ of India. This article is arguing that English facilitated the coming together of elites across India and that India as a country cannot have a single lingua franca.
    Wherever you go, try to learn the language of the people there. Respect all languages equally.Recommend

  • Gratgy

    Not all North Indian languages have such a relationship with Hindi. What is the connection between Hindi and Bengali? or Hindi and Assamese, or hindi and Oriya. Each have their own script as well. In fact other than UP and MP every other state has their own language. In fact Kannada has more common sanskrit words with Hindi than with perhaps Tulu, which is spoken in coastal Karnataka, Then why is Kannada imposed on Tulu speakers?

    Punjabis speak Punjabi at home, Kashmiris speak Kashmiri, Himachal people speak Pahadi, gadhwali, Kumaoni etc, Biharis speak Mythili, santhali, mungeri at home. Marathi people speak Marathi.People in Bengal speak Bengali and Orissa Oriya. Each of these languages are totally different from Hindi.

    It is a South Indian misconception fueled by Dravidian politicians that all North Indians speak Hindi just like North Indians think all South Indians speak MadrasiRecommend

  • wb

    It is a fact that Hindi was imposed on pretty much everyone in India. It’s not a concept. It’s a fact. It’s a historical fact.

    And yes. Some languages are absolutely inferior for the very facts that I’ve stated above.

    I see that you do not know the difference between script and language. Hindi uses Devanagari, which again is not Hindi. And most of Hindi is Arabic or Persian. That includes the very fundamental Ek, Do, Teen…Recommend

  • wb

    Clearly, you’re making up your own stories. Nobody in South India believes that all North Indians speak Hindi. That’s your own superstition or rather a prejudice against South Indians.

    But, all of South Indians and others know for a fact that Hindi was imposed upon us by successive meek, servile state governments who had to lick the boots of predominantly Hindi dominated national politics.

    This is a fact, dear.

    And yes, more North Indians are ignorant of South India, compared to South Indians of the North.Recommend

  • Huzur

    Wrong. Recent reports indicate otherwise, and Hindi is ill equipped to replace science and technology. If Hindi was so successful, then why are the educated from North seeking jobs in South where Hindi is hardly spoken? It is English which gets them their jobs.Recommend

  • Huzur

    So is Latin, and can every one take to Latin and replace English and other European languages?Recommend

  • Huzur

    Of course it is oppression and bias. How many from south have jobs in North, as against the people from North doing well in non Hindi areas?Recommend

  • Huzur

    In essence, you are saying that North Indian language for the north.Recommend

  • Komal S

    That is exactly the point. Because the so called hindi belt embraced Hindi, all the local languages are slowly going out of existence in northern India. Anti-Hindi agitation in the south was the best thing happened to India. Recommend

  • shiv

    Hindi or English, both are Greek to a vast population living in rural areas because they understand only the local languages excepting states coming in Hindi belt/cow belt.Recommend

  • sri raam

    Languages like Punjabi, Bengali, Oriya are similar to Hindi since they are all Sanskrit based languages. They are called Indo-Aryan languages.

    The dravidian languages belong to a different language tree; So, different words, different grammer/sentence structures.

    It is much easier for a Punjabi to learn Hindi compared to learning Tamil. Do not argue with LinguisticsRecommend

  • sri raam

    When the BIMARU states become the most prosperous states in India, the entire India can learn Hindi that time.Recommend

  • Gratgy

    I don’t deny that it was imposed, in the same way as Kannada was imposed on Tulu speakers. But its been 70 years now and its time to deal with it.

    Most of Hindi is NOT Arabic or Persian, I guess for you Hindi is what is spoken in Bollywood movies where most of the script writers were Urdu people who migrated to Mumbai from Pakistan during the Partition days.

    The quality of any language is derived from the literature available not the script. Both Kannada and Hindi have rich literature available. By your Logic Prakrit is a far superior language which has a script much older than Kannada. How many people do you see speaking Prakrit?

    An please spare me your condescension, especially coming from someone who seems incapable of even reading my comment properly where I have clearly mentioned Hindi uses Devanagiri script, so why are you repeating it back to me. I understand your opposition to Hindi because of your ignorance towards it. It is the Frog in the well mentality.
    By the way

    Ek is derived from Ekka in Sanskrit- eg: Ekadashi

    Do is derived from Sanskrit Dvi and so on

    Similarly a lot of Kannada words are derived from Sanskrit as wellRecommend

  • Gratgy

    Millions of South Indians are working in North India. One example, me. Where I work, no one cares how good your Hindi is, English is what mattersRecommend

  • Gratgy

    Kannada has loads of words from Sanskrit. In fact I find more Sanskrit words in Kannada than in Hindi but find hardly any Kannada words in TuluRecommend

  • Gratgy

    Haha as I suspected perhaps you do live in a well, Why would I have prejudice against South Indians, I am a South Indian. But most South Indians when casually speaking including my relatives lump all North Indians together.

    It is just your victim complex that has been fed into you by the regional political parties into thinking there is some kind of conspiracy to dominate you.

    In fact I see south Indian states doing much better than North Indian states and believe me life in South is far better than in the North.

    A lot of North Indians were Ignorant and racist. I grew up with people making fun of my language when I spoke with my family. Now things are much better simply due to the reason that a lot of North indians have migrated to the South and have got used to South indians. I grew up having to defend my language against people in the North who said their language is superior with their “facts” just like you are giving me .

    For me language is just means for communication. It is for bringing two people together not to divide them. Arguing which is better is just like arguing my thing is bigger than yours. As I mentioned, I can speak six languages fluently (though I can read just two) and I think each language is as beautiful in its own way

    I am not saying regional languages should be neglected. In fact I am ashamed when I see Kannadiga kids in Bangalore speak only in English and neglect their own language as they feel its more fashionable to speak in English, while I who have never lived in Karnataka force my son to learn KannadaRecommend

  • Gratgy

    Local languages are not going out of existence. People speak in Hindi in say Kashmir or Punjab, Bengal, Assam etc only while speaking to an outsider. While among themselves they speak in their own tongue, in fact I see more Kannada people speaking only English in Bangalore compared to People in Punjab or kashmir who speak their own language among themselvesRecommend

  • Gratgy

    I agree, let market forces determine which language dominates rather than fight over it. Even in North you have a better chance at getting a job if you are good with English . No one cares how good your Hindi isRecommend

  • Gratgy

    But what if you are visiting for just one day, you do need a bridge language to speak with the “non elite”. For example my relatives from villages know neither English or Hindi. They face a serious handicap when leaving their state. For example on the train how do they communicate with the attendants?

    I am the one saying all languages are equally beautiful and must be respected but I am saying we need to be practical too. Learning as many languages is an asset. However i only see people who support their own language saying their language is superior to all othersRecommend

  • Nomad1412

    I am a South Indian who grew up in Mumbai in the 70s. Growing up, my Hindi wasn’t as good as it is now and I was humiliated for speaking with a southern accent that I spent may years to overcome. When I later went to Delhi, I was made fun of for my Mumbai accent.
    It is not about Hindi, it is about acceptance. Recommend

  • Dakshina Bharati

    Sanskrit has many loan words of Dravidian languages. The conotation of Sanskrit is very close to dravidian languages! We will never accept Hindi! Infact we would secede rather than learning an alien language!Recommend

  • Ayush

    You don’t need a bridge language to speak to the non-elite. How do Europeans communicate? Does the EU expect all Europeans to learn one of the European languages?

    And if you go to non-Hindi areas, the elite cannot speak Hindi anyway so Hindi cannot be a link language for them. If Hindi is sought to be made the lingua-franca, all the problems mentioned in the article continue to fester.

    If you are going somewhere for a day, you don’t need extensive communications. Try to pick up small/important phrases in the local language. That is how people have functioned in all places.

    As English grows, its efficiency as a link language will continue to grow.Recommend

  • Ayush

    No, it is a fact that North Indian languages are slowly disappearing. In a few decades from now, Magadhi, Braj, Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Angika etc will disappearRecommend

  • abhi

    Your reply is factually incorrect.Recommend

  • Memona

    Hindi is a dying language in India it is being replaced with English, same happening to Urdu in Pakistan. Though regional languages aren’t much affected.Recommend

  • http://www.bhashabharatiarts.com/ BBA – Translation Company

    Infact this article is also in English and we are also discussing in English lolRecommend

  • vinsin

    Urdu was never a Pakistani Language in the first place. Urdu is a national language of Pakistan, Hindi is one of many national languages of India.Recommend

  • Komal S

    Okay, you are missing the point, the local languages in Bihar, UP, Rajasthan are lost as the next gen is not speaking them anymore. Their open adoption of Hindi was a death knell to their mother tongue.Recommend

  • Islamic Origin Language Hindi

    Hindi is Persian copied Pakistani language, disguise in Sanskrit script. Its Mughal originated language and not a proper Indian language. SHame that these people adopted their invaders language and claim it is an Indian language.Recommend

  • Islamic Origin Language Hindi

    Hindi is Islamic copied language and has nothing to do with Hinduism. Look at the name Amit SHAH ??? SHah is not a Hindu name.Recommend

  • Islamic Origin Language Hindi

    Pakistani language cannot be made India national language, only Indian language should be Indian national languages. Pakistani language just because it is written in Sanskrit script does not make it an Indian language.Recommend

  • Islamic Origin Language Hindi


    Never forget that BJP is involve in EXPORATION OF HALAL MEAT WORLDWIDE, the company AL DUA has ownership links to BJP.Recommend

  • http://thoughtsandotherthing.blogspot.fr/2015/09/hyderabad-as-i-know-and-feel.html Supriya Arcot

    Whatever is Hindi ” copied ” from , the dwellers of Hindustan ( besides the river Sindhu ) should speak in Hindustani language . The subcontinent owes a lot to the British : so English can be our second national language.Recommend

  • Yogi Berra

    The tragedy is BJP cannot make Sanskrit as national language like Hebrew is made language of Israel. This Because of opposition from Dalits and Backwards (who prefer to stay backwards as it is more fun). Sanskrit is the only mother language and so can be national language of India. Any other language, including English, can only be an official language of India. Never a national language.Recommend

  • Gratgy

    Stop trying to project one’s own shame on others. The Language promoted by Mughals was Urdu, which is your national language not Hindi

    Did Mughals exist in 7th century AD? Recommend

  • Salim Alvi

    Sanskrit->Prakrut->Pali->Khadi Boli->Marathi. Marathi is older than Hindi which came from Hindustani. BrijBhasha is older than Hindi/Urdu.Recommend

  • Salim Alvi

    Sanskrit was revived by Macaulay defined born “Untouchable” Kalidas. Both Mahabharat & Ramayan were penned by so called Dalit.Recommend

  • Salim Alvi

    UP also has Braj Bhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Kannauji, and many others. Hindi becomes link language within UP, within North, West, Central India & beyond because the grammar is common & all share Sanskrit substratum which provides etymological root for 90% of words.Recommend

  • cabalco

    wrong on both countsRecommend

  • Fair Reforms

    I am a proud south Indian. I have nothing to do with Lalu’s language. I am neither culturally nor linguistically associated with most north Indians. I feel more at home talking to an American or English than a north Indian. I will never vote the BJP as long as they enforce Hindi in South India. I think North Indians are more like the Pakistanis than South Indians,West Indians or East IndiansRecommend

  • Muhammad Saim Raffat

    Prime reason for bangladesh’s separation was the unjust distribution of resources between east and west pak and inability to give due rights to the people of east pakistan by west pakistani elite. Language movement for sure was the first issue which emerged between the two wings but the issue got settled in 1956 when both the languages were eldercare state languages by the govt of pakistan.Recommend

  • Ram Dargad

    What relevance the surname Shah has to this topic?
    Shah is a common Gujarati name, Saha is surname in Odisa. It is very much Indian, whatever be its root. Similar surname is also there in other countries like Iran, which may be due to cultural interactions or just a coincidence.Recommend

  • Islamic Origin Language Hindi

    Comparison of Pakistani language Hindi and Iranian and Arabian languages will show that Pakistani language Hindi is foreign origin language.Recommend

  • Islamic Origin Language Hindi

    It is Islamic origin word. Amith Shah is Proxy Muslim. Never forget that Islamic greeting he did for Onam in Kerala, instead of greeting in Malayalam. His dress and behavior and justification of Islamified language Hindi imposition are because he is fake Hindu.Recommend

  • Islamic Origin Language Hindi

    Pakistani language people (Hindians) are the only ones who are corrected as per their twisted logic.Recommend

  • Islamic Origin Language Hindi

    Read who Mr. John Gilchrist is. You will understand better.Recommend