Is CPEC a rebranded Chinese adaptation of the East India Trading Company?

Published: June 21, 2017

A man hangs decorations next to a banner showing Pakistan’s President Mamnoon Hussain (L), Chinese President Xi Jinping (C) and Pakistan’s Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, before Xi’s visit to Islamabad April 19, 2015. PHOTO: REUTERS

The proposition that the currently under way China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is in fact a rebranded Chinese adaptation of the East India Trading Company is certainly fraught with massive inconsistencies.

As has been prudently observed by many before me, it is highly unlikely that the Chinese state is going to use the garb of trade to forcefully occupy Pakistan, seize administrative control and establish a colony as a jewel in some sort of neo-Maoist Empire. Notwithstanding the ineptness of the Chinese at duplicating western artifacts, this might be a step too far, even for them.

The simple corollary of these observations is that any attempts to draw a parallel between CPEC and the East India Trading Company are just knave machinations on part of those seeking to ferment fear and anxiety regarding the CPEC by evoking sensitive historic imagery.

However, as unlikely as it remains that we will be subjected to any kind of colonial rule in this day and age, it is not entirely impossible that significant mishandling of the CPEC affair can cause serious harm, uncannily similar to the kind incurred during the Raj.

Currently, the Chinese investment pouring into Pakistan within the CPEC framework is unlike any foreign investment as a result of the sovereign guarantees provided by the state of Pakistan for a return on these investments. Unlike the customary private investor who devotes capital for an enterprise with the inherent risk of losing out on his investment if the business fails to perform well, the Chinese investor in CPEC is guaranteed a return on his money from the government of Pakistan, regardless of the profit or loss.

This means, for example, that if the electricity from CPEC-related projects is acquired at a higher price than it is sold, it will be the Pakistani taxpayer who bridges the gap for repayment. A similar situation would occur if revenue collection for energy bills were to fall short, something that isn’t a very far-fetched supposition in Pakistan today.

Overall, if Pakistan does or does not reap full economic benefits of the opportunity arising through Chinese investment, is immaterial to the financial gains the Chinese private sector will receive, which are guaranteed by the state. Eventually, if Pakistan were to fail in exploiting the CPEC and the projects within were to become damaged or even derelict, the Pakistani taxpayer will pay the Chinese investor.

Such an unfortunate accumulation of events would render the CPEC as an extremely lucrative private enterprise for the Chinese, at a great economic cost to the Pakistanis. The parallels between the CPEC and the Raj would then become less incongruent, even unavoidable.

The rail network still functioning in the subcontinent today is widely touted as one of the defining legacies of the British Raj. However, little is known about how the project was originally commissioned. The railways were built on the back of Indian taxes forcefully extorted by the British for the benefit of English investors who had been energetically exhorted to invest in the project. In fact, the rates of return offered remained so high that the investment soared to the top of the London Stock Exchange. Thus, what we essentially had was great enterprise for the British investor, at a monumental cost for the Indian tax payer. It all begins to sound eerily familiar.

The comparisons do not end there.

The extravagant returns promised to the British investor exponentially inflated the overall cost of the project, with a single kilometre of rail lines costing 10 times as much as its equivalent in Canada at the time. Similar concerns are being voiced regarding the CPEC.

Projects which European or local funders were already willing to finance at lower rates are being added to the CPEC portfolio for the satisfaction of the Chinese investors. It is also worth mentioning the concerns regarding economic zones which are feared to be exclusively monopolised by the Chinese private sector. Government rebuttal on this point aside, tangible steps improving transparency around this question are necessary to fully satisfy all doubts.

Eventually, the rationale behind raising the above mentioned concerns is not to arouse alarm, spread uncertainty and play the part of a heretical spoiler for the sake of it. Nor is it to question the bona fide intentions of China vis-à-vis Pakistan. Certainly, in the larger framework of the One-Belt One Road (OBOR) vision, a prosperous Pakistan fully utilising the potential of CPEC is within the immediate and long-term interest of the Chinese.

The point is simply to highlight the risks of ignoring the much needed work that needs to be done in order to truly benefit from Chinese investment. CPEC is by no means a game changer simply by virtue of its genesis, it will only be so if the government acknowledges and vigilantly fulfils the responsibility arising from it.

Raza Rashid

Raza Rashid

The author is a Barrister and is interested in politics, religion and sports. He tweets at @RazaRashid14 (

The views expressed by the writer and the reader comments do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of The Express Tribune.

  • Schehraezade

    Good stuffRecommend

  • porki pie

    so after usa , china is their new masterRecommend

  • pakOne

    Very pragmatic and intelligent analysis.
    My suggestion to author is forget pursuing the mundane and dime-a-dozen profession of LLB and aim for areas such as central/future economic planning etc. as career. As there isn’t seems to be many level-headed thinkers in pakistan, most of them seems to be brainwashed by the forced fed narrative of the parasitic security state out to enrich the stakeholders/establishment/army/their stooges in politics at the cost of awam. CPEC in this sense is more like a combination of east india company and the criminal sell off of nation and awam’s future!Recommend

  • Solomon2

    “it is highly unlikely that the Chinese state is going to use the garb of trade to forcefully occupy Pakistan, seize administrative control and establish a colony as a jewel in some sort of neo-Maoist Empire.”

    Ah, I can see the headlines a hundred years from now:

    “Soon, the U.S. dollar will no longer be the dominant world currency.”
    “Latest on the clashes between Arabs and Israel”
    “All quiet on the Sino-Persian border.”Recommend

  • Raj – USA

    You have quoted “Raj” more than once in this article. Take it from this Raj who has been commenting on CPEC many times since it was first floated.

    CPEC started off as a military project and Pakistan thought that facilitating China to encircle India would be to its benefit. Little did Pakistan realize then that Pakistan itself will be absorbed by China. Now, CPEC is China’s project not only to encircle India and absorb Pakistan but also to destroy Pakistan’s culture and religion.

    Many facts came to light after the abduction and killing of two Chinese in Baluchistan. ISI knew that the Chinese were engaged in religious conversion activities. So, they offered them security in the hope that they would be able to keep an eye on them. Chinese sensed it and rejected this offer. Ch. Nissar, who had said in Pakistan’s Parliament that before he is a Pakistani Parliamentarian, he is a muslim, himself could not hide his feelings and disclosed the facts that the Chinese were involved in religious conversion activities in Pakistan. It is understandable that China would do it and necessarily have to do it because the islam practiced in Pakistan will hurt China’s interests. It is necessary for China to totally change Pakistan’s culture. So, the push for China’s cultural activities in Pakistan, like teaching Chinese language, popularizing for Chinese movies and cultural activities, etc. etc.

    What happened after the killing of the two Chinese. Chinese citizens came out with barrage of comments in Waibio China’s version of Twitter. China controls its media, including social media and does not allow comments that does not reflect the military governments views. But, in this case China let loose its social media and allowed Chinese to express their views of Pakistan and Pakistanis. On Pakistan’s side also the same feelings for China and Chinese prevail. Only the army and political elites of Pakistan pretend to like China and Chinese because they stand to benefit from Chinese kickbacks. They keep their real feeling hidden in their hearts. Take an honest and scientific opinion poll of the Pakistanis and you will see the results.
    Pakistani’s should read this report thoroughly, bearing in mind that Hong Kong based South China Morning Post’ report of June 18, 2017 is the source of this news:
    You think that China will not occupy Pakistan militarily? We see the signs already.

    2-3 months before his death, Gen. Hamid Gul, retired DG-ISI of Pakistan appeared in a TV program. At the end of the program he asked the anchor, Kashif Abbasi to give him two minutes because he wanted to say something very important. He went on to say that China should be grateful to Pakistan for ever. Pakistan kept India engaged in Kashmir for a continuous period of 35 years and it was during this period that China made all the progress but in the process, Pakistan destroyed itself and lost heavily. Hamid Gul said this with tears in his eyes, deeply resenting for what Pakistan did to its own self.Recommend

  • Huzur

    Chinese are not philanthropists.They are shrewd businessmen and everyone knows this.They want the world to buy their pirated products but does not allow to enter their markets except for some token presence.Recommend

  • gp65

    A nice, nuanced article.Recommend

  • Patwari

    Nope. Not good stuff. Just a figment of the blogger’s imagination…
    “done gone bad”Recommend

  • Thomas Benjamin

    This is a balanced analysis.It will be wise for Pakistan to pay attention to what happened to Sri Lanka and to a lesser extent to Myanmar.Recommend

  • Patwari UK,Aus,Can,US,NZ,Ger,

    Latest gibberish freshly churned out by, nationalistic, Saffron Warrior of
    BJP of the RSS/Shiv Sena Brigade. All choked up in his Hindutva frenzy.
    There is more to come. Seems like the Hindu Vishwa Parishad has a new convert. Sitting beagle eyed hacking out invented facts, which are skittering out of his mind.
    May Lord Ganesha shower his benedictions on all hindus.Recommend

  • Patwari

    You think so ?….pg56?Recommend

  • Han Solon

    Chinese ruling class strictly follows Herrschaft und Knechtschaft dialectics.
    Promise/Contract is observed as long as the other party remains useful or has leverage over her.

    Schadenfreude is also peculiar to Chinese mentality. Whatever injustice and pain inflicted upon them by the powerful, they will duplicate the same upon those weaker than themselves.

    What leverage does Pakistan have over China??Recommend

  • Patwari

    Bullpucky in triplicate. Ford, GM, Chrysler, Microsoft, Boeing, Apple,
    Mercedes Benz, Fiat, Rolls Royce [jet engines] Ralph Lauren, Nike,
    etc. etc. etc. are all there. They are selling AND manufacturing there.
    The rest of the world is not dumb. Americans, Germans, French, Japanese,
    Russians are shrewd businessmen too. Nobody does or goes in business
    to fail. Profit margins differ, but that is usual and normal.
    If it costs $4 to make a shirt in China and sell it for $25 in US or UK or Paris
    who won?
    Who made a profit? Both sides !! Of course!!Recommend

  • Ahmar

    In the first quarter of the blog, the author stresses that CPEC is not another East India Company. Later in the article, he goes on to make the case that CPEC will exactly end up like the East India Company with Pakistanis ending up exploited as they were by the British investors of the Raj,

    The author is very confused and paranoid.

    CPEC is an investment project. It’s not aid. Not free hand-outs. Not Qarz-e-Hasna. It is an investment from China with returns expected. The same way we get loans from IMF/World Bank with returns expected.

    The author made a claim here and I quote, “Projects which European or local funders were already willing to finance at lower rates”

    Yeah, I’d like to see a source for this claim or I am calling BS. The article linked is from Ishrat Hussain, the former State Bank Governor, and nowhere has the ex-governor claimed in his article that European/Local investors were willing to fund infrastructure/power projects at lower costs.Recommend

  • Patwari

    Chinese also follow another rule/idiom,…dumbanddumberlikeyou.
    Basically this applies to Hindustanis, only, like YOU.Recommend