How the two-faceted mindset of moderate Muslims ends up aiding militancy and terrorism

Published: June 25, 2017

Afghan alleged former Taliban fighters carry their weapons before handing them over as part of a government peace and reconciliation process at a ceremony in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. PHOTO: AFP

In recent years, there have been growing concerns that Islam’s major problem, as well as the world’s, is Islamic radicalisation, since Islam is one of the major and fastest growing religions of the world. These concerns are being voiced in various countries and have yielded various reactions ranging from apologetic defence (whereby some of the western liberals interpret it as a ‘reaction’ to the US hegemony) to outright xenophobia.

Radicalisation is a major problem and there is no question about its lethal potential to inflict harm in the form of religious extremism and terrorism. However, though present, it is not as widespread in the Islamic world as is often projected by the media. If a major section of Muslims was actually radicalised, the situation would have been far worse. Most of the Islamic world, whether ruled by democratically-elected leaders or by autocratic strongmen, is by and large not radical. In fact, an overwhelming majority does not endorse or support suicide bombings or terrorism of any sort.

What has actually happened is that a critical mass has become radicalised, whereas a substantial majority remains moderate. In fact, the Islamic world itself has faced the biggest brunt of terrorism and therefore there is no way they can endorse it. Religious extremists are a fringe and they do not need to expand beyond that as they are not trying to impose Shariah (Islamic law) through an electoral process.

In my opinion, the biggest problem confronting Muslims is their state of denial about the presence of extremists in their midst and their complete inability to self-introspect. Even today, a huge percentage of Muslims do not believe that the 9/11 attack was conducted by Arab Muslims. In fact, a Pew Research Centre poll in 2011 found that even a decade after 9/11, there is no Islamic country (out of those that were included in the sample) where even 30% of the Muslims believe that Arab Muslims executed the 9/11 attacks. It even includes very secular countries like Turkey where a whopping 73% of Muslims believed that 9/11 was not conducted by Arab hijackers.

This denial is far more widespread and in some ways even more precarious than the extremism itself. Extremism, if recognised as a problem, can be fought through a combination of ideas and military action backed by political will. However, if the large chunk of the Muslim world is in denial, then this attitude inadvertently helps the militants by giving them ‘soft’ support. Most importantly, when you are not able to recognise a problem, then there is no way that you can expect to counter it.

For example, in Pakistan, we have been reeling under extremism for a long time and even now, the mainstream media continues to come up with complex conspiracy theories according to which militancy is not home grown, but planted by foreign powers. Even after the attack on the Shah Noorani shrine last year, many were just interpreting it as a conspiracy against the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) rather than another episode in the long series of targeting Shias and Sufi-following Sunnis.

This mindset has generated a lot of problems, chiefly being our inability to self-introspect, identify the core issue and then mustering enough collective political will to fight militants. Obviously, if the militancy is construed as a foreign conspiracy, then the fight against militants becomes a fight against ‘Pakistani’ people, militants become victims and war on terror becomes ‘their’ war.

I vividly remembered what happened in Swat in 2009. Militants, in a series of aggressive steps, took over the entire Swat region near Islamabad. As they kept on annexing town after town by force, stories started to emerge about their degrading attitude towards women, burning of schools and steps to curb even the basic liberties of life.

In fact, there was even a flogging video which showed a woman being lashed in public for the ‘crime’ of coming out of her house unaccompanied by a male family member. Despite the clear evidence, majority of the TV-watching Muslim population of Pakistan simply refused to believe it. Every news was labelled as western propaganda being carried out through their funded Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) and their own media. Even when clear evidence was presented in the form of a video, the entire local media’s thrust was on proving it to be fake. The entire nation seemed to be in denial and the media was actually pressurising the government not to take any action against militants as, according to the Pakistani population, they were nothing but victims of western propaganda.

Then, militants forced the government to sign a deal which would enforce a strict Islamic law in the region. As the deal was being signed, the TV anchors were actually appreciating the step and trying to spin all the criticism as western propaganda. Literally, no TV channel was interpreting it as a deal brought through coercion.

In fact, none of them were even critical of the hard-line contents of the deal itself which, if successfully implemented, would have resulted in virtual elimination of basic liberties and complete enslavement of women. At that point, the US repeatedly criticised the deal and tried to persuade the government not to sign it. However, the government, under huge domestic pressure, was unable to muster collective political will and therefore ceded to the demands of militants.

Soon after signing the deal, the leader of the movement, Sufi Muhammad (leader of the insurgency) threatened to attack Islamabad if his version of Islam was not implemented across Pakistan. Since the speech was broadcasted live and there was no way that the people could deny the actual words spoken, everyone was in shock. Finally, people understood that Swat was indeed under militants. Although this led to a belated army action, instead of blaming the hard-line Islamic militants, people started to point fingers at the US. Suddenly, the ‘freedom fighters’ of Islam became paid agents. What happened in Swat is a classic example of how denial ends up supporting the militants.

Eventually, Pakistan’s population turned against the Taliban and finally action is under way. The opinion turned in favour of a military action, particularly after the gruesome terrorist attack on school children in the city of Peshawar. However, this action could have taken place much earlier if we had not been in denial.

Even now, the majority thinks that foreign powers are behind that and a host of Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), as well as other militant groups’ activities. Once again, this takes the focus away from the real issue, which is of religious indoctrination instilled in the huge madrassa network of Pakistan. By obsessing over foreign powers, we are in fact ignoring the real causes. Although the current breed of terrorists may be eliminated due to the on-going military action, in the future, new breeds of extremists will continue to emerge. Even if we assume the foreign powers are involved, we are forgetting that they are able to do so mainly because our madrassa system facilitates them.

Closely linked with this denial is the habit of coming up with the apologetic defence whereby extremists act as if suicide bombings are justified as a reaction to some (real or perceived) atrocities committed by the West. The apologetic defence, although not denying the existence of the problem, does something even worse; it actually creates sympathy for militants rather than revulsion. Today, it is hardly surprising that a military response by Israel draws far more public condemnation from Muslims than gruesome atrocities committed by extremists groups like Islamic State (IS). Likewise, a few killed by the US drone attacks have enraged more Pakistanis compared to literally thousands killed by militants.

What this point of view fails to understand is that extremism, though at times fuelled by international events, is irrational in nature. You cannot cure it through the ‘understanding of the victim’ approach. Plus, even if that interpretation is true (which I don’t think it is), we need to realise that international events are largely out of the locus of control of Muslims and they cannot hope to cure real extremists in their midst just by lamenting about the so-called atrocities of the West.

It is thus this twin faceted mindset of the ‘moderate Muslims’, which gives soft support to a small minority of hard-line Muslims and allows them to flourish. The irony is that moderate Muslims actually condemn suicide bombings and other extremist acts and yet, due to their peculiar mindset, end up inadvertently strengthening the extremists. And as long as Muslims do not realise it, they will keep on strengthening the forces of nihilism and allow the fringe of hardliners to dominate.


Raza Habib Raja

The author is a recent Cornell graduate and currently pursuing his PhD in political science at Maxwell School, Syracuse University. He has also worked for a leading development finance institution in Pakistan. He is a freelance journalist whose works have been published at Huffington Post, Dawn (Pakistan), Express Tribune (Pakistan) and Pak Tea House. He tweets @razaraja (

The views expressed by the writer and the reader comments do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of The Express Tribune.

  • wb

    Muslims have been habitual liars. Even today, Muslims are ready to blame CIA, Mossad for all the mess they’re in instead of agreeing that Muslims started killing each other on the day your prophet died and even before his body was buried. Since then, the Shia Sunni was has been going on and on and has never stopped.

    Yet, blame RAW, CIA and others.

    I read a wonderful comment about liberal Mulims. An extremist Muslim kills others and a liberal Muslim wants extremist Muslims to do the killing.

    And this is the truth. And by the way, in the history of mankind, Muslims have killed more Muslims than any other group of people has killed any other group of people.

    Perhaps the only ones who have died in bigger number in the hands of Muslims other than Muslims are non-Muslims (all of us).Recommend

  • KlingOn2K

    It is the responsibility of the moderates to raise their voice against extremists within their community. After all, they are the ones who will face the brunt of the backlash. It is not enough to say it is just a small percentage or justify it by raising non-sequiturs like the Palestinian issue.Recommend

  • Murad Farooqui

    True, courageous and admirable words but for deaf ears, I am afraid.Recommend

  • porki pie

    nothing will change until pakistan realize that radicalization they have done in the society is needed to be reversed and eradicated immedietlyRecommend

  • Hamzah Mujahid Khan

    it’s not just the muslims, many americans themselves don’t believe that 9/11 was a taliban or al qaeda’s work.Recommend

  • only truth is nature

    So true.The so called moderates have the same mind-set.Recommend

  • peter pan

    Excellent piece!Recommend

  • continuedhere

    I was with you until you brought up that video. That video of the girl being flogged *was* fake. The government of Pakistan investigated it and that’s what they found out.Recommend

  • nasir ali khan

    Blogger is sitting in US blaming Muslim majority for not accepting the existence of terrorism amidst them. This can’t be farther from the truth. The majority accepts, and condemns it I. No uncertain term but the problem is that the media doesn’t give coverage to this. So instead of this blame game blame it on media to bring forth the, truth.Recommend

  • Custard_Pie_In_Your_Face

    You need to reexamine your definition of a ‘moderate Muslim’. Not being an active extremist does not automatically make one a moderate Muslim. If you can’t call organizations like Al-Qaeeda, the Taliban, ISIS, and the like for what they are then as far as I’m concerned you’re a extremist sympathizer and in no way a moderate muslim.Recommend

  • Feroz

    Very true, escapism is easy way out.Recommend

  • vinsin

    How many?Recommend

  • vinsin

    Extremist and Militancy are two different things. Extremism has two level – one who is against women rights, child rights, animal rights and religious building and clothing laws – so that make almost every Muslim a extremists; other is being against freedom of religion, speech and expression – that again will make majority of Muslims as extremists. My ex-Muslim friend told me that is because Islam has no concept of minority rights, there is completely lack of empathy from Muslims for minorities.Recommend

  • numbersnumbers

    All can go to Wikipedia and look up “9/11 attacks” and “9/11 conspiracy theories” for extensive writings on the event!Recommend

  • numbersnumbers

    Well written analysis of a very serious problem damaging the Muslim world!
    However, all should recall how many Pakistani politicians ran to the nearest TV Camera crew after a major terrorist attack in Pakistan, claiming to have “proof” of RAW/Indian involvement, while ignoring the terrorist groups loudly taking credit for the carnage at the same time! I blame the media for not following up after the fact, asking those same politicians just what happen to all that “proof” they boasted about!Recommend

  • rationalist

    The operative word in your comment is “Government of Pakistan investigated ti” !! When did you find the government telling the truth?Recommend

  • wb

    Here comes the lies. I told you Muslims are habitual liars. DEnails and lies. Denaials and lies. Nothing else.Recommend

  • Patwari

    Killing women and children.
    Burning vandalizing Christian churches. Whole Muslim villages are set afire in Manipur, Mizoram. In the state of Arunachal Pradesh ethnic, indigenous minorities are kicked out . Sikkim, Ladakh, Kerala are another story.
    Does not look like Shining Bharat, Rising Bharat. Recommend

  • Patwari

    1.5 billion. Same number as the hindu population, aping
    American culture.Recommend

  • Huzur

    Muslims don’t accept if it is against their pre conceived notions or belief.They deny and shift the blame to some one else nor do they wish to abandon some ideas which are not acceptable to the present way of life or thought.Science and modern thinking has brought about remarkable changes but Islam does not accept this as other faiths have done.Recommend

  • Huzur

    This is what the author is talking about.Denial and bury the head in the sand and hopes the problem shifts elsewhereRecommend

  • Juan

    Very well put. Many people who deny religious extremists amongst them or propagate false conspiracy theories of a foreign hand are indeed deflecting and giving cover to the religious extremist criminals in one way or another. To me this isn’t innocent ignorance, but complicity.

    Canada, of all places, bluntly states it’s top domestic and foreign violent terrorist threat as being Sunni Islamist extremists, particularly of the Wahhabi or Salafi kind. This is what more or less threatens Pak as well, however, the Pak Sunni majority, which has also witnessed multiple attacks, will never be honest with itself to admit such a crisis.

    Imagine being a minority Hazara, and a victim of some targeted sectarian terrorist attack, and then hearing from your so called fellow countrymen and state leaders that it was Indian agents involved in massacring your community, literally and shamefully being lied to, when you can clearly see Sunni extremist groups preaching hatred against you and being untouched by the state, and in some instances promoted. It really is an absolute treason and betrayal of Pakistani citizens. Instead of letting spout their prejudiced nonsense, these people should be put in their place and confronted with the truth.Recommend

  • Ghazi Gul

    How is it two faced two-faceted mindset to support freedom fighters who are defending their land, homes and families again foreigner invasion? Those who are invading Muslim countries and plundering their resources are the real terrorists.Recommend

  • KlingOn2K

    Surely Muslim nations have their own media! I have watched a lot of coverage within Pakistan of some terrible terrorist attacks. The conclusion is always that the West pushed them into the war on terror and that Pakistan is the victim. Nobody ever points the finger at the ideology that is becoming deeply radicalized with each passing year.Recommend

  • Scrutator

    Kudos to the author for speaking the truth!!!Recommend

  • Scrutator


  • Scrutator


  • Scrutator

    If among 300 million Americanssay some nonsense, then 200 million Pakistanis can make a choice to believe in a rational theory or an id theory!Recommend

  • rationalist

    LGood. Let’s extend the same logic to hisory. How about invasions and occupation of foreign lands by Muslims? Jewish lands, pre-partition India, Persia, Armenia, Syria, Egypt, Afghanistan….and manymoreRecommend

  • Ahmar

    Great writing. I remember the Swat operation and how the whole media kept praising Sufi Muhammad and Mullah Fazlullah even after that video came of public lashing of a girl.Recommend

  • numbersnumbers

    Any comment from you on the “Freedom Fighters” who defended their land, homes and families in EAST PAKISTAN, finally gaining their freedom to become Bangladesh!Recommend

  • cautious

    Name one Muslim country who’s resources have been plundered by non Muslims? Sure wasn’t Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, or Libya.Recommend

  • wb

    My dear Patwari, as always, your parents have failed you. 1.5 billion is the population of a group of people who have been failing themselves and faililng others for the last 1450 years. You see, this group of people’s only contribution to this planet is Death and Destruction and nothing else.

    And they’re not Hindus. Can you guess who they’re?Recommend

  • ab

    How can you be so sure that 9-11 was not an inside job? maybe it was or it maybe it wasn’t.Recommend

  • ab

    you remember that video but didn’t remember that the video is now openly considered as fake.Recommend

  • vinsin

    That is called being politically correct. It is better to call spade a spade.Recommend

  • vinsin

    You hit the nail. There are three main differences – history, secularism and liberalism. There is a clash of history.Recommend

  • vinsin

    There are not 1.5 billion people in USA. Hindu population is more than that of America. No idea what you talking about though?Recommend

  • vinsin

    Who plundered resources of Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan after partition? Which resources got plundered by non-Muslims of Muslims? What about Indian Muslims in Indian even after partition? What about Pakistani demanding Kashmir even after getting Pakistan?

    Arent Islamic invaders hero of Muslims? Are Sunni freedom fighter or Shia or Kurds or Hindus or Buddhists or Sikhs or Zoroastrians or Jews etc?

    Muslim countries invading and killing Muslims is ok for you. Muslims looting Muslims is ok for it.Recommend

  • Ahmar

    I do remember it was considered fake, even at that time. I remember spending countless hours back and forth arguing on social media with Pakistanis who dubbed it western propaganda asking me how the girl was able to stand up and walk away right after being beaten.

    Same argument happened when Malala was shot.

    Same thing when Salman Taseer was murdered.

    Same thing when suicide bombers get dubbed Ra/Mossad agents.

    Every time, I get declared a western/Indian agent for my trouble.

    I am just too tired of arguing with stupid people in our country. Majority of them are dumb and in denial. There, I said it. You happy now?Recommend

  • Ghazi Gul

    One? There are many. Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Egypt, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Afghanistan and others. Seven Muslim countries been destroyed by the West in the past decade. Three of them bombed into the stone age, permanently.Recommend

  • Ghazi Gul

    East Pakistan was invaded by India. It is not free any more. BTW you are off topic. You must be from India. Indians have weak minds that can’t stay focused because of the all the rapes going on and having no toilets. Filthiest, most unclean, starving dirty people in the World.Recommend

  • numbersnumbers

    BTW you brought up freedom fighters to justify actions by terrorists, but seem ignorant of how the East Pakistanis wanted freedom from West Pakistan! Wonder why the East Pakistanis have not voted to rejoin West Pakistan?????Recommend

  • numbersnumbers

    And just which countries have been bombed into the Stone Age as you delusionally claim?????Recommend

  • Patwari

    …1.5 billion hindu population…aping American Culture…
    1.5 billion on the bad side of Pakistan…Leeward side.
    But it is clear. Recommend

  • Juan

    Unfortunately, none of my comments get through whoever moderates the main news stories on the website. Thought I bring this to attention in this article, since it’s relevant. Apparently they think these sectarian attacks are some recent strategy and a foreign construct rather than a current existing local issue. These calls for unity is so disingenuous.

  • LS

    Saudi Arabia – Plundered? I wonder how they got so rich. Egypt got plundered of what? Iran got Plundered of what? Libya was plundered by Gaddafi more than anyone else. Afghanistan was plundered of what? The state Afghanistan is in has a lot to do with pakistans doing including Gulbuddin hikmatyar (who was supported and settled in pakistan in 1973)Recommend


    thank you for opening our eyesRecommend

  • ab

    No it was not considered fake at that time. but now it is ,but do Enlighten why the radicalization in some percentage?Recommend

  • wb

    Thank you for summing up 1450 years of Muslims! All hail kind Patwari.Recommend

  • Juan

    Appreciate at least my comments get posted here, however, this comment was sadly heavily censored.Recommend

  • Ghazi Gul

    And don’t forget the Hindooo. The Hindu is the problem.Recommend

  • numbersnumbers

    How can you be sure that APS slaughter was not an inside job?Recommend

  • Alisha Deshmukh

    No, you are the one who is blind and delusional. Those demolished by the Crusader Zionists are Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan.Recommend

  • Alisha Deshmukh
  • rather junaid

    Oh i don’t know maybe syria, hmm add iraq also, and when you’re at it add Palestine, Kashmir, Myanmar, Afghanistan hmm, i can think of some more but it will not go past your small brainRecommend

  • continuedhere

    what incentive do they have to lie? they actually benefited from that video because it helped drum up support. if anything they have an incentive to say that the video is genuine.Recommend

  • vinsin
  • vinsin

    That is not the population of Hindus. There are not 1.5 billion Americans in America. Read to check facts. Please prove your point with US population data next time.

    Be grateful to Hindu for giving you a country. What have you given to Hindus?Recommend