Grieving Abdus Salam and the Muslim age of darkness

Published: January 29, 2017

We failed him, and proved how truly unworthy were we of him. PHOTO: TWITTER.

“There is no question, but today, of all civilisations on this planet, science is the weakest in the lands of Islam. The dangers of this weakness cannot be over-emphasised since honourable survival of a society depends directly on strength in science and technology in the conditions of the present age.” – Abdus Salam

It was last year, on December 5, when I woke up to the news that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, had approved the proposal to rename the National Centre for Physics (NCP) as the Abdus Salam Centre for Physics (ASCP), along with five PhD fellowships annually in Abdus Salam’s name. This was a pleasant surprise, as this step was taken by the same state that had earlier failed to honour the first Nobel Laureate of Pakistan himself. After this momentary delight, I wondered if ASCP would emerge as Pakistan’s equivalent to The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), in Trieste, Italy.

Abdus Salam was born in 1926 – he was a poor boy from Jhang, who had not seen electricity until his teen years. He scored record-breaking marks in his matriculation examination in all of Punjab, at the young age of 14. He never looked back, and finally emerged as one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 20th century. Together with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg, Abdus Salam received the Nobel Prize for his contribution to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, in 1979.

Furthermore, he paved the way towards the discovery of the Higgs boson, also known as the “God particle,” which is considered the biggest scientific breakthrough in decades. Despite being excommunicated by his own nation over state discrimination and an inflexible social attitude, he remained loyal towards Pakistan. He even wore Pakistan’s national dress – the shalwar kameez – whilst accepting his Nobel Laureate. He didn’t accept citizenship from any other country, and kept his Pakistani nationality till his last breath – he was a true patriot.

He worked as the science advisor for President Ayub; served as the founding director of the Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO); helped in establishing the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), as well as contributed towards the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). Furthermore, he mentored Professor Riazuddin, the man who designed Pakistan’s atomic bomb.

These are just a few of his long list of contributions for Pakistan. The irony is that none of them, including the prestigious Nobel Prize, stopped his countrymen from rejecting him or from calling him a traitor. This was not only a personal loss for Salam, but a national tragedy as well. He dreamt of establishing an international research centre in Pakistan to awaken third world and developing countries, but it was made impossible for him, thus, he ended up inaugurating the institute in Italy. He also established the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) there (later renamed The World Academy of Sciences). Today, thousands come to ICTP and TWAS each year to be inspired by his vision.

Abdus Salam, in one of his essays, recalls a Nobel Prize Winner from a European country speaking to him:

“Salam, do you really think we have an obligation to succour, aid, feed and keep alive those nations who have never created or added an iota to man’s stock of knowledge?”

And this is a reality check. Our share in the modern world is too difficult to trace.

Take a look at the current indices of the Muslim world, say in education, health, economy, science and technology – it’s evident that we have fallen to an all-time low. A little introspection reveals that Pakistan has the world’s weakest higher education system, ranks third on the list of countries with the worst reputation, 149th in UN health goals among 188 countries, 147th in the Human Development Index, 119th on the Global Innovation Index out of 128 countries, 108th on the Global Hunger Index among 118 countries, stands among the 10 worst countries for internet freedom, ranks third in human slavery out of 167 countries, ranks second worst for travel freedom, stands in the bottom 10 countries for freedom of speech, tops the list for the worst countries for religious freedom, and so on.

The intellectual stagnation of the Muslim world in general and Pakistan in particular, is not accidental; it is due to a series of correlated miseries that we allowed to befall us. For instance, we didn’t allow the culture of rationality and free thought, and hence, scientific reasoning never flourished here. We considered science an antithesis of faith, and those academics who tried to show the world that both of them are compatible were shunned. In addition, aesthetics, art, and culture were also side-lined, and the state policies along with theological legislations pushed us to the wall even more. As a result, the space for progressive and intellectual discourse kept shrinking that ultimately led to this painful mess we are in today.

The Muslim Ummah constitutes one fifth of mankind. We had a proud past, from the eighth to the 13th century – the period referred to as the Golden Age of Islam – when Muslims were the torchbearers of knowledge and intellect. Unfortunately, our contribution to science and technology is currently non-existent. The Mongols invaded Baghdad, and destroyed the Bait-ul-Hikmah (House of Wisdom), a centre of excellence, but it cannot be considered the reason for our fall.

It was the home-grown religious orthodoxy that existed much before it, something that was responsible for naming the intellectual giants of Muslim civilisation heretics and for their persecution. Take these examples: Al-Kindi (801-873) was publicly flogged before a large crowd, and his library was confiscated. Al-Razi (854-925) was hit on the head with his own book till he lost his eyesight. Ibn Sina (980-1037), a Hafiz-e-Qur’an himself, was declared an unbeliever by Imam Al-Ghazzali; his books were banned and he had to flee to save his life. Similarly, books of Ibn Rushd (1126-1198) were ordered to be burnt. Fast forward to recent history we have another intellectual, Abdus Salam, who was also an outcast because of the same mind-set which rejects reasoning and considers rationality a threat.

The enterprise of science has uniform principles across the globe; there is a well-defined scientific methodology that is the same for all students of science regardless of their geography and ideology. Hence, scientific knowledge has emerged over history and Muslim countries need to realise that they are dependent on science for their survival and progress. Otherwise, science doesn’t depend on them.

Abdus Salam wished to build an enterprise of science in Pakistan – a research centre that could act as a precursor for the revival of knowledge – not only for Pakistan, but for third world and developing countries as well. He passionately advocated the importance of science for preferment of Muslim countries. We failed him, and proved how truly unworthy we were of him.

Will Pakistan be able to produce another Abdus Salam? The answer, in the present and in the near future, is a big no. The state of science in Pakistan is dismal, school curriculums fail to inspire any interest in this beautiful subject, orthodoxy is dominating society, and space for free thinking and rational enquiry doesn’t exist. The Muslim world, by and large, has the same scenario, and one can rightly refer to our present as the dark ages for Muslims.

Amidst these discouraging signs, here’s a welcoming step from the government that infuses hope. The prime minister has recently honoured the oft-overlooked Pakistani hero by renaming NCP as ASCP. Pakistan has made a number of wrong choices, but it’s time to correct them. Let’s celebrate the 91st birthday of Dr Abdus Salam today by resolving to carry the torch of Salam’s vision and shining the light on intellectual freedom, reasoning, and scientific knowledge in the country.

Nayyar Afaq

Nayyar Afaq

He is pursuing a doctorate in Physics from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad and his objective in life is to become a better human being. Nayyar tweets @Nay_Af (

The views expressed by the writer and the reader comments do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of The Express Tribune.

  • Jay

    The author is too demanding. Why do we need boring things like universities and high tech research centers when, instead, we can have motorways and metro buses? Orange ones and red ones and all manner of shiny ones. Look at our Arab exemplars: they have state-of-the-art sky scrapers and technological marvels in their countries. Sure all were designed, built and maintained by foreigners, with the Arab contribution being a bank check and a photo op, but why quibble over details?Recommend

  • Fahim

    Why you are praising him and not Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan because Abdus salam was a Qadiani. Abdus salam intellect was at a level that he believed in Mirza Qadiani.

    ET please publish my full commentRecommend

  • AA_Southpaw

    You need to read what Imam Ghazali’s wrote about Ibn Sina and the reason he declared Ibn Sina’s sayings as Kufr.

    Then think whether they were wrong or not.

    Bring your proof if they aren’t.Recommend

  • vinsin

    Is the author suggesting that Islam brought dark ages on converted people? Is the author suggesting that destruction of universities in the subcontinent by Islamic invaders was wrong?Recommend

  • Adnan Latif

    Why this obsession with Abdus Salam ? I just keep on seeing articles about him. Also I would advise you to stop describing him as Muslim. If 99% of Pakistanis think he is not a Muslim you should realize you are wrong.Recommend

  • Striver

    An article that should prick the conscience of all denominations of religious belief. But I have hope in the younger generation such as Nayyar Afaq. They will bring about a change. It will come slowly but surely.
    Abrupt change can be dangerous for any society. Slow and steady wins the race.
    It is disheartening when Nayyar Afaq says there is not one who can replace Abdus Salam. Is the state of our education really so dismal?Recommend

  • goggi (Lahore)

    Muslim age of (pitch) darkness, imperialism and war culture, absolute mind control and submission, reciprocal affirmation of lies and fairy tales, unnatural apartheid of genders, morbid hatred and oppression of every adversary, free thinker or a non-muslim, total absence of critical thinking, the barbaric killing and devouring of innocent animals, over-exaggerated emphasis on male sex drive ………….. has a span of not less than 1407 years!Recommend

  • Ahmar

    A little pressure from the Tehreek e Khatm e Nabuwwat and the Nawaz government will bend over backwards to change the name back. No change will be real in this country until religion and religious affiliation is declared a private matter and separated from politics.Recommend

  • sam

    we should keep science and Islam separate.
    Pakistan was unlucky. He established TWAS and his research centers in Italy.
    We are standing at the same place. There is no further improvement in us.
    If we agree that he is not a Muslim then it doesn’t mean that we should abandoned him. He was a scientist.
    We are studying about non-Muslim scientists. Then stop studying about non-Muslim scientist.
    It is about making ourselves better.

    we should have taken benefits from Dr.Abdus Salam in the field of science instead of abandoning him.Recommend

  • sallu

    whats wrong if he is non muslim.. think of him as a Pakistani first.. dont drag religion into every thing…Recommend

  • Fahim

    You haven’t read article clearly, If you see the heading of the article you will understand who has drag religion on blog. grieving Abdus slam and the muslim age of darkness.
    Regarding science most inventions are now from Christians and Jews, they should be appreciated as their contribution in our lives are more than unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particlesRecommend

  • Masood Mian

    For your information ( you don’t seem to have much ) in the entire Islamic countries only Saudi Arabia and Pakistan has declared Ahmadis Non Muslims. Even Bangladesh, once part of Pakistan has not bowed to Mullas and Ahmadis are considered Muslims. No wonder Pakistanis don’t receive any respect around the World. Shame, shame on you. Get some real progressive education.Recommend

  • siesmann

    It was Ghazali who preached against two basic truths of sciences- theory of cause and effect,and declaring manipulation of numbers a sin.He brought the momentum of Muslim sciences to a screeching halt.Mullahs have continued the tradition of irrationality.They have become Gods under pretext of piety ,and they are now deciding for God.Recommend

  • siesmann

    Look at your name,and then look in the mirror.What has praising Dr. Salam to do with Dr. Khan?Your sense of rabid hate doesn’t obligate others to follow you.Recommend

  • siesmann

    If your mind can’t fathom the importance of the scientfic facts,their importance doesn’t go away.And you will hate your own scientist and praise others’.(not that they are not deserving).Just give your hatred a breakRecommend

  • siesmann

    It is your hate that is obsessed.Recommend

  • Hasan

    @Adnan Latif:
    Well with that logic, Shias are also non-Muslims. So are Wahabis, Devbandis and the likes.
    The obsession with Dr. Abdus Salam is due to the injustice done with his stature.

    Besides, in my opinion Pakistan does not deserve to be related with the likes of Abdus Salam. Pakistanis are better off with frauds like Abdul Qadeer Khan and Agha Waqar.

    The world will celebrate Abdus Salam for years to come. It’s just sad Pakistanis don’t want him.Recommend

  • Hasan

    Another ignorant from the desi land?
    Do you even know the implications of the electro-weak theory in our lives?Recommend

  • Hasan

    Abdul Qadeer Khan is a “metallurgist”. The Atomic bomb design was done by Professor Riazuddin, not that guyRecommend

  • Fahim

    Dr. Abdul Qadeer khan was head of KRL laboratory in Kahuta responsible for R&D and production of Highly-Enriched Uranium. Have some sense, one person (Professor Riazuddin) can’t make an atomic bombRecommend

  • Fahim

    Please enlighten me with the importance of electro weak theory in our daily life and what it did good for Pakistan? As we are seeing dozens of article every monthRecommend

  • Fahim

    He is not my scientist, YES I HATE HIM AND FROM THAT GROUP. because they say very wrong things about our loved ones. Research on a theory won’t fade it awayRecommend

  • salim hazari

    Because Professor Dr Abdul Salam is the Crown and pride of your Country, the ungrateful fellows’!
    And another Chdy Sir Mohammad Zafarullah Khan, who was the First representative of Pakistan in the United Nations and then the President of the International Court of Justice
    What you produce the nalaaek “99%”, show another one from you 99%! Nalayek!


    (Look at my profile picture of Facebook, I am with him, London in 1979. Why is my obsession to them, even I am not a Pakistani. Because they are such the personalities – one must be proud forever having just the shade of them even once).Recommend

  • AA_Southpaw

    Go read the context in which Imam Ghazali wrote this.

    In his “Book on Knowledge” he has reprimanded these mullahs for not becoming physicians when there is a need of Muslim doctors.

    Please have a look at the above and the historical/political/religious context of that time.Recommend

  • Hasan

    One person can’t make the atomic bomb, but ‘one’ person can take all the credit for it! Hint: Fraud Qadeer KhanRecommend

  • Hasan

    “What good it did for Pakistan?” Are you kidding me! Before Abdus Salam, how many ‘Muslim’ scientists were in the running for Nobel price? Heck how many Pakistanis were in the running for Nobel Price? Countries like South Korea envied Pakistan’s contribution to science. Also rest assured, if there is no Abdus Salam, there is no Atom bomb for Pakistan.

    Electro-weak theory paved the way for the discovery of Higgs Boson, now we have a better understanding of the mechanics of the Universe and how it works. The fact that Pakistani’s aren’t interested in it shows the commitment towards education and contributions in science.

    It is this science that you so despise that helps innovation and technological advances. Hardliners like you they curse the West but are willing to use the ‘internet’ and ‘computer’ that came from there and is taken for granted.Recommend

  • Fahim

    Fraud like you give all credit to Professor Riazuddin ?Recommend

  • Fahim

    Who said I despise science ? It is your level of intellect. Now guess whom I really hate and why ;)Recommend

  • Agha

    Wow, if numbers were to be taken as facts then please also consider a lot (A LOT) of people consider muslims as terrorists or potential terrorists in the making! You should really pay attention to them since they are HUGE in number they MUST be right, no? Stop using pathetic logic. By your logic Ahmedis are muslims in Bangladesh (or any other country) because majority considers them muslim. What an absurd logic.Recommend

  • Firdous

    A very well written article that has sympathetically and honestly diagnosed the problem of Muslim societies vis-a-vis lack of scientific progress and rational enquiry.Recommend

  • siesmann

    Then don’t cry over what Trump is doing. He hates Muslims like you do Ahmadis.At least he is targeting people outside of USa,while you hate your own co-citizens.Recommend

  • siesmann

    Reason won’t work with people born of and to hate.Recommend

  • Fahim

    I am happy with Trump as he is not hypocrite. On the other hand people have stopped watching comedy showsRecommend

  • umairullah

    you can call Abdus Salam Sahiwali (he was born in a village there) or jhangvi (he grew up there), but i can assure you he was not born in Qadian. If you want to refer to his faith, yes he was an ahmadi. please don’t call him Qadiani, generally ahmadis dont like being called that. It just takes away impartiality from your comment.
    regarding AQ – better than agha waqar academically, but not much in research.Recommend

  • umairullah

    It helps to motivate students to focus on STEM subjects and aim for the highest prize in Science. everyone needs role models – it helps if you want to motivate yourself.Recommend

  • Fahim

    I can assure you one more thing that there leader name was not Ahmed, he was Ghulam Ahmed, so why should I call them Ahmedi? Instead you should call them Ghulam-Ahmedi.Recommend