A nation that forgets its heroes will itself soon be forgotten

Published: January 29, 2015
SHARES
Email

This is the pluralistic and democratic Pakistan we live in, the suffocating land of the ‘pure’, where the ‘other’ and the ‘impure’ are condemned to insignificance. PHOTO: FACEBOOK

This is the pluralistic and democratic Pakistan we live in, the suffocating land of the ‘pure’, where the ‘other’ and the ‘impure’ are condemned to insignificance.  PHOTO: FACEBOOK This is the pluralistic and democratic Pakistan we live in, the suffocating land of the ‘pure’, where the ‘other’ and the ‘impure’ are condemned to insignificance.

 American president, Calvin Coolidge, once said,

“A nation that forgets its heroes will itself soon be forgotten.”

It was a moment of relief and glory for Pakistanis when a hero, who was later turned into a ‘villain’ by conspiracy theorists, won the noble peace laureate on October 9, 2014. Yes, it is our brave Malala who is the youngest recipient in the world to have received this prestigious award. She will continue to be despised by those who consider anyone getting an international acclaim a ‘yahoodi agent’ (Jewish agent), ‘ghaddar’ (traitor), ‘kafir/ mashriq’ (non-Muslim/ Western) or a ‘drama’. However, whenever someone mentions Malala and the Nobel Peace Prize, there comes an automatic flashback of our much forgotten and never duly acknowledged, first ever Nobel Prize winner, Dr Abdus Salam.

Malala Yousafzai. Photo: AFP

Today, January 29,2015, marks the 89th birthday of Dr Salam. He was a genius, to say the least; topping the matriculation exams at Punjab University, with the highest marks ever recorded, and later getting scholarships at the Government College, University of Punjab, Saint John’s College, and at Cambridge for his PhD. He excelled wherever he went, so much so that 42 honorary doctorates were bestowed upon him by different universities of the world.

Men of his intellect are seldom born in the history of nations and are the greatest asset of any country, but it’s a pity that he was not treated justly by his own countrymen. He is buried in Rabwa; while it is shameful that he was not even given a state funeral, what is worse is that the word ‘Muslim’ was removed from his grave epitaph on orders of the judiciary. The grave now reads ‘First Noble Laureate’. He won the Nobel Prize for his contributions towards the unification of electroweak forces. Dr Salam was at the forefront of theorising the Higgs Boson particle in the 1960s and 1970s and who, along with Steven Weinberg, applied the Higgs mechanism to electroweak symmetric breaking.

Dr Abdus Salam.

His contributions in the field of natural and physical sciences are exemplary, and not only has he won many awards and honours, many documentaries have been made on him. The rest of the world acknowledged the contributions that Dr Salam made so much so that roads – CERN in Geneva where the Higgs Boson particle was finally discovered – and institutions have been named after him. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy being one such example.

But how many people in our country know about this brave hero?

Can we ever imagine his name in our history books along with Tipu Sultan, Jinnah, Allama Iqbal or more precisely, Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan for that matter?

All of us know the answer to this and the reason as well; his religious belief took precedence over his innumerable achievements. This is the pluralistic and democratic Pakistan we live in, the suffocating land of the ‘pure’, where the ‘other’ and the ‘impure’ are condemned to insignificance, regardless of what achievements and rewards they bring for the country. It’s a shame that the world celebrates our heroes and we not only forget them, but never even acknowledge their contributions in the first place.

Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan. Photo: Reuters

I was once walking outside King’s College near the Somerset House in London. While reading the profiles of the notable alumni, the name Sir Chaudhry Muhammad Zafarullah Khan caught my attention. Truth be told, this was the first time I had ever heard of him. As I continued to read his achievements, there developed a mixed feeling of pride and shame inside of me. Mr Khan was a barrister from Lincoln’s Inn, a law graduate from King’s College and the only Pakistani president of the United Nations general assembly. In 1970, he was elected as the president of the International Courts of Justice in The Hague. Moreover, he was an active member of the Pakistan Movement, presided at the Delhi meeting of the All India Muslim League in 1931 and advocated the cause of Indian Muslims through his presidential address. He participated in the three Round Table Conferences held in the years 1930, 1931 and 1932. Furthermore, Mr Khan was appointed the judge of the Federal Court of India in September 1941 and was the first ever appointed foreign minister of Pakistan by Mr Jinnah himself – a post which Mr Khan held from December 25, 1947 till 1954. But since he also belonged to the Ahmaddiya community, his contributions were never fully acknowledged or remembered.

Sir Chaudhry Muhammad Zafarullah Khan. Photo: Wikipedia

Similarly, Mr Cecil Chaudhry is yet another example of a forgotten hero. He was the first photo-journalist of Pakistan, a veteran fighter pilot who was awarded the Sitara-e-Jurat for shooting down three Indian aircrafts in a mission in the 1965 war and Sitara-e-Basalat for his services in the 1971 war. His name was mentioned in the history text titled ‘Humaray Ghazi aur Shaheed’ but is not included in our history books any more. Mr Chaudhry was interrupted in 1983, when returning from his designation in Iraq, and was told that he would not be promoted any further. He has recorded that the discrimination in the forces started against the minorities from the Ayub era, where,

“Many generals felt it would not do if a Christian general one day stood up and took power in Pakistan.”

Cecil Chaudhry. Photo: PAF archives

Later, he asked to be discharged in 1985 and emerged as a human rights activist and educationist, holding the position of the principal of Saint Anthony’s College, Lahore and Saint Mary’s Academy, Rawalpindi. He contributed to bringing education and electoral reforms and his efforts culminated in the creation of a joint electorate system in 2012. In 2013, former president, Asif Ali Zardari, approved the conferment of the President’s Pride of Performance Award upon him.

But Mr Chaudhry is not widely known in our generation nonetheless, nor is Wing Commander Mervyn Middlecoat, who was martyred in the 1971 war.

However, there have been some distinguished minority figures who contributed towards the betterment of the country without demanding any acknowledgment in return. These include Justice Rana Bhagwandas, Justice Dorab Patel, Justice AR Cornelius, Bapsi Sidhwa, Ardeshir Cowasjee and Julius Salik.

Top: Julius Salik (L), Ardeshir Cowasjee (C), Justice AR Cornelius (R)
Bottom: Bapsi Sidhwa (L), Justice Rana Bhagwandas (R)

Generally speaking, there is, comparatively, still some room for acceptance when it comes to celebrating heroes who happen to be ‘ahl-e-kitab’ (people of the book). But those belonging to the Ahmaddiya community are strictly outcasts when it comes to being celebrated as heroes.

It is ignominious that though the father of the nation embraced the minorities and spoke of pluralism, his message has been lost and was never followed upon. Instead, it is covered by the smokescreens and propaganda of religion and ‘conspiracy against the state’.

This is not the Pakistan Mr Jinnah had envisioned and is definitely incongruent with the ideology of the Pakistan movement. So where did the subsequent drafters of the constitution get their inspiration from?

Article 25 of the constitution clearly states the equality of citizens but despite this general provision of non-discrimination, there are laws which are discriminatory by every definition. We should learn from our neighbours, where Muslim heroes, despite being a minority, are celebrated – Akbar, Amir Khusrau, Ustad Bismillah Khan and Dr Abdul Kalam, to name a few.

Unfortunately, we are wasting our potential, our pride and our honour, and before we become forgotten as a nation, let us start celebrating our heroes unconditionally.

Ayesha Siddique Khan

Ayesha Siddique Khan

A barrister at law from Lincoln's Inn London and has LLM in International Protection of Human Rights Law from University of London.

The views expressed by the writer and the reader comments do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of The Express Tribune.

  • Ranveer Singh Warraich

    A country born out of the inability to live with others, is now having trouble living with its own! Recommend

  • uzmaa

    Thanku so much for the reminding us about the real heroes. Because these days we have made fools our heroes and sadly, a lot of us are worshipping them . Recommend

  • Agha Ali

    still waiting for your promised article on human rights violations in the United StatesRecommend

  • Rashid Ahmedkutty, Kerala, Ind

    How you expect Pakistan to acknowledge non-Muslims……after all, Pakistan was created for the “Muslims” of subcontinent and not for non-Muslims…..Don’t you remember the slogan…..Pakistan ka matlab………….so it is better, not to discuss the subject…….This is a country where Osama bin Ladan was found….and forget about Osama bin Laden being found, you imprison the person who help finding the Osama…….and then you say “Obama Pakistan kyun nahin aatee…….Recommend

  • Rhea

    One can only pity Pakistan and its governing class. Salam is one of the finest minds and we in India adore him. When he got the nobel prize we celebrated, and in Pakistan? He could not even deliver his lectures. Does Pakistan need any enemies at all?Recommend

  • Miyagi Jr.

    Well, where Mumtaz Qadri is celebrated as a hero, what can you expect from the rest of the country!!!!Recommend

  • Agrippa – The Skeptic

    @ the Author: first ever Nobel Prize winner, Dr Abdus Salam.
    What an utterly wrong statement!
    First ever Pakistani Nobel Prize winner – yes.
    First ever Muslim Nobel Prize winner – yes.
    Fist ever Nobel Prize winner – Nooooo !Recommend

  • Salman Shareef

    Yours Sir Chaudhry Muhammad Zafarullah Khan refused to offer Namaz-e-Janazah of our Biggest hero Quaid-e-Azam.Recommend

  • Prashant

    “The grave now reads ‘First Noble Laureate.”

    Who removed the word “Muslim” from his grave, was it not a Muslim Magistrate, is this not state blasphemy upon one of its heroes by desecrating his grave?

    “We should learn from our neighbours, where Muslim heroes, despite being a minority, are celebrated – Akbar, Amir Khusrau, Ustad Bismillah Khan and Dr Abdul Kalam, to name a few”

    Indian Muslims are just show pieces, I am not saying this, I have heard Pakistani experts saying this on television.Recommend

  • YA

    Nice Article, However it does not matter what Mr. Jinnah wanted, what is relevant here is what people wanted, and what the people wanted was a Utopia where Islam will show the world an exemplary society…. They clearly wanted it and Jinnah in his genius used it to full avail, however neither Jinnah nor Pakistan at large knew how to achieve this Utopian society and hence the great experiment continues… As for the Minorities of Pakistan, they need to come to the realization that Nationalism is only relevant for the majority in Pakistan as long as they see it serving the purpose of Islam, whatever that means…… Hence your above list will continue to grow and your pride will never be free from shame……..Recommend

  • Gp65

    Even you chose to omit the person who had written your first national anthem – just because he was a HinduRecommend

  • abhi

    it is ironic that such article iteslf misses so many names. Where are the names of those who faught for freedom from British? I don’t see names of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, Bhagat Singh etc.Recommend

  • wb

    Khan Abdul Gafar Khan is a hero to Indians. But to most Pakistanis he was a villain who was opposed to the idea of Pakistan and promoted free Pakhtoonkhwa.

    Bhagat Singh is indeed a hero to the entire subcontinent.Recommend

  • Ayesha Khan

    You are absolutely right, ET does some editing itself but that’s what I meant first Pakistani to win the nobel prize.Recommend

  • Ayesha Khan

    Hello Agha, I wrote one on drones. Kindly find it in the list of blogs written by myself for ETRecommend

  • Ayesha Khan

    the word limit is 1000 words, is it possible to include everyone? The essence of the blog is that lets give people the due recognition for their achievements regardless of their religious beliefs.Recommend

  • Ayesha Khan

    Even if what you are saying is right does not negate the fact that he was the first president of Pakistan to the UN, firs foreign minister, first Pakistani President of the ICJ etcRecommend

  • Ayesha Khan
  • suneet

    The fact that Abdul Qadeer Khan (aka photochor khan in India) is revered while a true genius Dr Abdus Salam is not shows you what kind of a society Pakistan has evolved into.
    This is what happens when you try to define a nation in terms of a religion. Stakeholders of that religion take over the affairs of the state and dictate terms. Mullahs tell you how Isamic is Islamic, what are the dos and don’ts etc etc.
    That the name “muslim” has been removed from the epitaph on his grave is not surprising. This had to happen.
    A.Q.Khan who most Pakistanis would not even know, is a metallurgist and not a nuclear physicist did a difficult job of pilfering secrets of centrifuge machines from Denmark. This came in handy to build the initial nuclear devices. Of course Chinese had to chip in with design, know how but what the public saw was a dedicated man who got the nation its much coveted bomb.Recommend

  • Jor El

    U talkin about Jagannath Azad ???Recommend

  • Jor El

    Its the author who has the prerogative to include whomsoever she considers a hero … plus, history is too vast to include everybody … lets try to focus on the spirit of the article rather than the specifics …Recommend

  • Queen

    A country having the inability to give due rights to others is having trouble accepting the existence of a sovereign state in its neighborhood.Recommend

  • Ranveer Singh Warraich

    The best thing that could have happened to modern day India was the partition. Thank god you have a country of your own!Recommend

  • Maximus Decimus Meridius

    Quite true. Most Pakistanis recognize these great heroes but are not able to voice their support openly due to fear of backlash and or death threats from Mullahs. Recently a student was severely beaten outside his college when he argued that the name of Bhagat Singh should be included in our text books alongwith that of Tipu Sultan.
    It is not enough for these people that they have almost completely wiped out mention of many greats from our textbooks, now they want to enforce their writ using force.Recommend

  • Queen

    The feeling is mutual!Recommend

  • Prashant

    What are the rights that India owed Pakistan but did not give? What Ranveer said is absolutely correct.

    Pakistan is a sovereign state and has been acknowledged and accepted by the state of India in 1947, a sitting PM of India went to the MInar-E-Pakistan, what else shall India do to convince you that Indians are aware of Pakistans existence in its neighbourhood.

    Pakistan is smaller than India and will always remains so but have you ever wondered how many countries in the world are smaller than you, Pakistan still is a very big country in territory, population and resources, you do not need anyone to help you if you learn to help yourselves, if you think Kashmir being a part of Pakistan is your due right, you may continue to dream forever.Recommend

  • Hasan

    “How you expect Pakistan to acknowledge non-Muslims……after all, Pakistan was created for the “Muslims””

    That’s not it. Punjabi elite also forcefully declares Muslims non-Muslims, and have pretty much declared everyone incluisng Bengalis, Baluchis, Sindhis, Muhajirs, Shias, Ahmadis, Christians, Hindus, Sikhs as ghaddar too.Recommend

  • Hasan

    So? Maududu also did not offer Jinah’s funeral prayer.

    But aside from that does Pakistan have religious freedom or not? If it has then what is the complaint about?Recommend

  • Hasan

    PS: Then you should disown the UN Kashmir resolution that Zafarullah Khan got approved too. But you wont as you are happy to take from him, its only when you have to give respect that you become stingy and find excuses.Recommend

  • Mohamed Boodhun

    First ever Muslim Nobel Prize winner (in Physics) – yes.Recommend

  • Hasan

    How do drones justify what you do in Pakistan? Just your way of avoiding the issues at home and a failed attempt to change the subject.Recommend

  • Maximus Decimus Meridius

    then why are you guys so sad? why the general iratness? why the hate for Pakistan? I can see from your other comments that you only comment against Pakistan and use abusive, foul, vile and generally bad language denigrating Pakistan no matter what the topic. People like you are the reason we created this country. And it makes me very happy that you are burning inside.Recommend

  • Maximus Decimus Meridius

    To be honest the use of his pilfered prints is highly debatable. The Chinese would have readily handed over the plans when the Indian reached the last stage of testing. So even his thievery did not help us that much.Recommend

  • Maximus Decimus Meridius

    When you offer your next prayer behind an Imam who calls you an apostate disbeliever, brands your nikah as illegal, insults your daughter as illegitimate and insults your sect generally, THEN you can present this argument. Please do include the name of the mosque where you said such a prayer. It is very easy to ridicule someone but you yourself are doing the same thing. Pretty shameful attitude.Recommend

  • Salman Shareef

    Who ever was he but he was not the biggest hero than Quaid-e-Azam.Recommend

  • Anonymous Hero

    I
    am kind of skeptical about AQ Khan. I heard him on TV saying that the
    1st law of thermodynamics doesn’t hold on the issue of running a car
    with water …Recommend

  • YA

    Unfortunately what you state is factual…. However this fact, only shows our combined state of mind; which Zafarullah Khan was a part of, irrespective of his caste creed or religion. Like all Human being we do some good and some bad…. What we chose to highlight and follow will define our state of being…. Our present state of being is indicative of the choices we have made, we are free to change or continue our trajectory, the results will be in accordance of our choices, no more no less, such is the nature of reality…….Recommend

  • YA

    Reading all the comments I would like to say this Ayesha,

    It is a thoughtful and correct article. Written at the right time for the right audience…. Well Done….

    If Pakistan is to survive and meet the challenges of modernity we have to take an intellectual discourse free from bias, religious zeal and bigotry (and this not for being good or righteous but to arrive at the correct conclusion and open paths for correct solutions). This is a difficult task however the field is wide open with exciting possibilities…..

    Rereading your article and comments make me think of Theodore Roosevelt who said:

    “It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles, or where the doer of deeds could have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs, who comes short again and again, because there is no effort without error and shortcoming; but who does actually strive to do the deeds; who knows great enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who neither know victory nor defeat.”

    To finish off I would say this: Dr. Salam was a Giant, and he will be remembered and such is his legacy…..Recommend

  • abhi

    Ofcourse author has prerogative, but here she is trying to question others prerogative of considering who is hero and who is not.Recommend

  • abhi

    Thanks for taking time and responding to my comment, I agree with overall theme of your blog. My only issue here is that in Pakistan the pre-independence heros are totally forgotten and nobody bothers to even mention their names.Recommend

  • Anand Rathore

    Pakistani’s heros are such as Muhammad bin Kasim, Oragzeb, Muhammad bin Tuggalk etc. So the country also progressing on the same way. Miss Ayesha. Until Pakistani people don’t recognize the voice of people like u, will be going further more In Dark and will never be able to find a way back. Recommend

  • One Pakistan

    Cecil Chaudry, met him, what a great Pakistani.

    When will we get back to Qaid E Azam’s Pakistan.

    What vision, what hope, what ambition we had…

    And now we have been reduced to debating the size of our beards (very sad)Recommend

  • Lakhkar Khan

    Nice article. However, sad to see a hero, humanitarian icon, Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan, in not included on your list.Recommend

  • Visibly

    Fantastic-satirical.
    Why do people accept something like this, but react to a drawing with violence?Recommend

  • Bunbaasi

    That’s correct he didn’t offer Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s funeral prayer. Have you ever wondered why? Let me tell you because the guy who lead the funeral prayer Allama Shabeer Usmani was a staunch enemy of Jama’at-e-Ahmadiyya, Firm believer like Ch. Mohammad Sir Zafarullah Khan couldn’t even imagine to do that.Recommend

  • islooboy

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W%C5%82adys%C5%82aw_Turowicz you forgot Pakistan rocket missile man the Polish engineer air comodore WladyRecommend

  • islooboy

    Pakistan rocket missile man a catholic polish engineer who was granted pakistani citizenship and his kids still serve in the pakistani air force http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W%C5%82adys%C5%82aw_TurowiczRecommend

  • Ranveer Singh Warraich

    Oh yes you got me! I am just burning up inside and I am so jealous of Pakistan. Recommend

  • Ayesha Khan

    you have misunderstood the context of this discussionRecommend

  • Ayesha Khan

    thanks very much!Recommend

  • siesmann

    Bigots and haters always will find an excuse to vent out their venom.Their heroes are the likes of Mumtaz Qadris and Osamas of te world-the killers of humanity.Enen If Zaffrullah Khan would have offered prayers,they would have found another ridiculous excuse for their hatreds.Recommend

  • vasan

    Sorry my friend, it is terrorism spawned by Pakistan on India and the umpteen wars(4 to be precise) forced on India by Pakistan that makes Indians dislike Pakistan,.Recommend

  • Jor El

    on the contrary, imho shes imploring others in her country to reconsider their heroes, not imposing her will on them …Recommend

  • Ammat

    This ‘Pure’ Land of Pakistan is full of impure people who don’t want us to sing the Heroes. Ahmadiyya, Christian, Shia are being crucified by Religious luatics. Time has come to change our paradigm shift.Recommend

  • Gamergal

    so you expect the non-muslims to leave their family and lands in pakistan and be beggars in some other country? would you be able to do that if someone asks you to pack up stuff and leave your belongings where they are? these people had no choice when the sub-continent was divided. we should help our guests and neighbours because that’s what muslims do, not slaughter them. some people were able to make a choice when migrating from one place to other. for others, it was too burdensome. i’m surprised you could say such thoughts out loud. its because of your kind of people pakistan will remain the way it is and then you say “we want change”. how can a country do that when you yourself won’t change? seriously dude, you’re too messed up. and another thing: people like you rest on chair and do nothing but criticize non-muslims. that’s how you show patriotism for your country while these non-muslims have proved themselves to be more pakistani than you’ll ever be.Recommend

  • Gamergal

    you’re right. i hate that guy.Recommend

  • sana

    how can you assume that she “chose” to omit himRecommend

  • bob

    By the way , are you also making a fuss because Maudoodi also did not offer prayers behind Quaid Azam.Recommend

  • Maximus Decimus Meridius

    1965 war was forced on India? 1971 war was forced on India? You must have some new information cuz the last time I checked Wikipedia and other encyclopedias they said that both wars were started by IndiaRecommend

  • Vish

    Jinnah said that first about Maulana Azad. Pakistani experts are just following his cue.Recommend

  • someone

    1965, Pakistani army started operation Jibralter to capture Kashmir. They expected the fight to remained within Kashmir however India outsmart them by opening the international border. Thus forcing Pakistani army to retreat from Kashmir.
    1971, the civil war like situation in East Bengal ( East Pakistan and now currently Bangladesh) forced millions of Bengalis to take shelter in Indian territory. There was enormous amount of refugees. India itself was a fragile economy unable to take the burden of all those refugees and the whole situation was not India’s doing. There was not foreign help and no one in the world asked Pakistan to stop the genocide of Bengalis. Also, Yahya Khan had positioned the Pakistani troops in forward position in East Bengal which forced India to take military action. So yes, both 1965 and 1971, the war was forced upon on India.Recommend

  • vasan

    Pl read wikipedia carefully and come to conclusions.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1965
    Once paki army infiltrated into Kashmir violating the ceasefire line, and operation gibralter started, India attacked where pakis didnt expect. Why start a war when u cant finish it.
    Regarding the 1971 the less said the better it is. Remember Operation Chengizkhan, Remember Indira Gandhi touring US and USSR asking them to reign in the massacres of bengalis in Bangladesh. Remember the millions of refugees who moved in to India.Recommend

  • Maximus Decimus Meridius

    Wow such a great act of self depreciation. You do know that millions of Afghan refugees are in Pakistan but Pakistan has never had any wars with Afghanistan. Such a poor excuse for a war. We had refugees so we started a war. So in the same vein, the USA should declare war on mexico and then on the subcontinent, UK and Europe should follow suit and even the Aussies should declare war on the Philippines and indonesia/malaysia.Recommend

  • Maximus Decimus Meridius

    As I said before which you ignored to read

    “You do know that millions of Afghan refugees are in Pakistan but Pakistan has never had any wars with Afghanistan. Such a poor excuse for a war. We had refugees so we started a war. So in the same vein, the USA should declare war on mexico and then on the subcontinent, UK and Europe should follow suit and even the Aussies should declare war on the Philippines and indonesia/malaysia.”Recommend

  • aamir

    Dr abus salam was definetly not a muslim… whats wrong in it … if court ordered so.. its law in pakistan that ahmadis are non muslim.. am not getting ur point.. he was genius yes agreed…but he was no where near to mighty sir dr qadir.. and that malal is just a fake story.. she is lie of west and definelty an agent.. no doubt in thatRecommend

  • AbdullahNoor

    No Jagan Nath Azad had never written a Pakistani national anthem. Check it again!Recommend

  • thriftysmurf

    Malala is not a hero, shes merely a tool in the hands of western right-wingers and racists. Why isn’t Aitzaz Hassan on this list?Recommend

  • Mustafa

    I think you are living on the dark side or a day dreamer.Just go and read some books that who has written Pakistan National Anthem. Dr Safdar Mehmood has very good grip on this subject of Pakistan Independence MovementRecommend

  • saad asad

    Sometimes it is wise to blame one’s own wit, rather to see faults in othersRecommend